MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 
1)  Jack and Kate work for the same law firm and have been dating for several years. As they work to coordinate aspects of identity and intimacy, they are each now confronted with the possibility of a promotion and reassignments to different cities. Which of the following is probably true? 1) ______
  A)  Jack is more likely to struggle with the decision, while Kate will take a more problem-solving approach to make her decision.
  B)  Jack is more likely to turn down the promotion in order to maintain his relationship with Kate.
  C)  If they are unable to resolve their personal and professional relationships positively, both are at risk for identity moratorium.
  D)  Kate is more likely to consider the impact of her personal goals on their relationship.

2)  Thomas has reached early adulthood with a sense of isolation. Which of the following is probably true? 2) ______
  A)  He is accepting of differences.
  B)  He avoids close ties for fear of losing his identity.
  C)  He is cooperative rather than competitive.
  D)  He defines himself in terms of his partner.

3)  According to Levinson's theory each era of adult development begins with a(n) __________, which concludes the previous era and prepares the person for the next one. 3) ______
  A)  culminating life structure
  B)  enlightenment
  C)  transition
  D)  anticlimax

4)  In Levinson's theory of adult development, the underlying design of a person's life at a given time is called the 4) ______
  A)  internal map.
  B)  transition.
  C)  life structure.
  D)  ego integrity.

5)  According to Levinson, someone who characterizes their life as full of energy and abundance, contradiction, and stress is probably in the life structure for 5) ______
  A)  middle adulthood.
  B)  late adulthood.
  C)  early adulthood.
  D)  late childhood.

6)  When she graduated from college, Andrea imagined herself progressing through the levels in a business until she had an upper-management job. Levinson would describe this image as her 6) ______
  A)  fantasy.
  B)  transition.
  C)  mentor.
  D)  dream.

7)  Endia has what Levinson would characterize as "split dreams." This means that Endia 7) ______
  A)  has several career paths or options available to her, and is unable to decide between them.
  B)  is unable to decide whether her marriage, motherhood, or career should be the focus of her life.
  C)  has images of herself in the adult world in which both marriage and career are prominent.
  D)  is probably identity diffused.

8)  Once Andrea began working in the business world, she formed a close relationship with Muriel, who was a few years older and had worked with the company for five years. Muriel showed Andrea the ropes and, with her help, Andrea quickly received a promotion and was given more responsibility. According to Levinson, Muriel 8) ______
  A)  acted as a mentor to Andrea.
  B)  was acting out her dream.
  C)  acted inappropriately and probably jeopardized her own job.
  D)  was probably going through age 30 transition.

9)  Priyanka , who is single, spent her twenties building up a successful career as a clinical psychologist. According to Levinson, as she reaches the age-30 transition, she will 9) ______
  A)  focus on finding a life partner.
  B)  question whether she made the right career decision.
  C)  consider adoption or in vitro fertilization using donor sperm, in order to fulfill her increasingly strong yearning for motherhood.
  D)  begin to feel a loss of identity as she increasingly defines herself by her vocation rather than other personal characteristics.

10)  For which of these people is the age-30 transition most likely to be a psychological crisis? 10) ______
  A)  Miles, who has no romantic relationships and a boring job
  B)  Carlos, a divorced man who runs an expanding chain of stores
  C)  Roberta, a successful office manager with a good marriage
  D)  Grace, happily married with three children but no outside job

11)  According to Levinson's theory of adult development, which individual is most likely to be in a stage of settling down and advancing? 11) ______
  A)  Ida, a 33-year-old teacher
  B)  Leslie, a 30-year-old nurse
  C)  Tony, a 35-year-old engineer
  D)  Ken, a 25-year-old doctoral student

12)  Nasim stayed at home with her two children for ten years before resuming her career in her early thirties. She is likely to reach career maturity 12) ______
  A)  during middle age.
  B)  during her mid-30s.
  C)  at the same time that most men do.
  D)  just before she retires.

13)  The major difference between Levinson's and Vaillant's theories of adult development is that Vaillant's theory 13) ______
  A)  is more relevant to development in other countries.
  B)  focuses more on the transitions than the eras.
  C)  denies a strict age-related schedule of change.
  D)  was based primarily on research with women.

14)  Both Levinson and Vaillant agree that adult development is primarily shaped by 14) ______
  A)  the kind of education and training a person has.
  B)  the unconscious forces laid down in childhood.
  C)  the quality of sustained relationships with others.
  D)  psychological changes that happen with age.

15)  Fifty-four-year-old Abdul has become concerned about the values of the new generation and the state of our current society. He becomes a tutor and mentor for a program at a local community center that works with at-risk youth. His actions are consistent with 15) ______
  A)  Vaillant's ego integrity stage.
  B)  Vaillant's theories regarding the "keepers of meaning" and guardians of culture.
  C)  Levinson's age-30 transition stage.
  D)  Erikson's intimacy versus isolation stage.

16)  Dr. Therrian wants to replicate the work of Levinson and Vaillant and address some of the sampling limitations of their studies. In order to do this, she needs to 16) ______
  A)  include a larger sample of men.
  B)  interview the individuals later in life so that they can compare their recollections over a greater timespan.
  C)  included more lower-SES, blue-collar individuals.
  D)  include a large number of people born in the first few decades of the twentieth century.

17)  Samera and Addison are a married couple in their early 30s who feel increasing pressure to buy a home and have children. This age-related expectation for what they should accomplish during this period of their lives is 17) ______
  A)  no longer applicable in today's society.
  B)  a primary reason for divorces that occur during the age-30 transition period.
  C)  based on the social clock.
  D)  stronger for men than for women.

18)  As Matthias gets older he is more sociable, independent, and intellectually effective. Matthias probably 18) ______
  A)  has a lifestyle that is incongruent with the social clock expectations for a man his age.
  B)  started a family earlier than the typical social clock.
  C)  followed an occupational timetable typical for men.
  D)  neither married nor been successful in his career.

19)  The fact that Australian college students in a research study advocated later ages for marriage and grandparenthood than those given by study subjects 30 years ago indicates that 19) ______
  A)  failure to follow a social clock no longer results in psychological distress for young adults.
  B)  the social clock is no longer as definite as it once was.
  C)  Australian students cannot be used to verify psychological theories.
  D)  Australians have a significantly delayed social clock when compared to the rest of the world.

20)  Aida is looking for a long-term partner. She is most likely to find a successful match 20) ______
  A)  by dating someone much younger than she is.
  B)  with someone she initially met in a singles club or bar.
  C)  with someone who is her opposite in many traits.
  D)  in someone who is quite similar to herself.

21)  When Sheila and Robert select their mates, research suggests that Sheila will place more weight on __________, while Robert will emphasize __________. 21) ______
  A)  physical attractiveness and athletic ability; moral character and manners
  B)  physical attractiveness and moral character; intelligence and sense of humor
  C)  intelligence and financial status; physical attractiveness and domestic skills
  D)  health and strength; career plans and physical attractiveness

22)  Talli finds that she is attracted to men who are intelligent, ambitious, financially secure, and have a strong moral character. According to evolutionary theory, Talli is instinctively drawn to this type of man because these traits will ensure that he can 22) ______
  A)  be a satisfying sexual partner.
  B)  help raise their children successfully.
  C)  be physically healthier than other potential mates.
  D)  father a large number of children.

23)  Due to the fact that men more often desire a relationship that moves quickly to physical intimacy while women desire psychological intimacy 23) ______
  A)  provides support for the theory that men are unable to psychologically commit to a monogamous relationship.
  B)  indicates that men and women start relationships with incompatible need fulfillment issues.
  C)  shows that gender roles influence criteria for mate selection.
  D)  provides further evidence for the evolutionary theory of mate selection.

24)  In cultures with greater gender equity, which of the following is evidence of the social learning perspective that gender roles influence criteria for mate selection? 24) ______
  A)  both sexes place a high value on caring and love
  B)  men are more concerned with a woman's domestic skills
  C)  women place less emphasis on a man's financial status
  D)  men and women place a high value on sexual satisfaction

25)  According to Sternberg's triangular theory of love, 25) ______
  A)  initial passion turns into intimacy, which then leads to commitment.
  B)  most adults have been involved in a polygamous relationship at some time in their lives.
  C)  monogamy is unlikely with this generation's increased lifespan, so most individuals are likely to have more than one long-term partner.
  D)  intimacy, passion, and commitment shift in emphasis as romantic relationships develop.

26)  Viggo and Olivia communicate with each other in warm and tender ways and frequently express concern for each other's well-being. According to Sternberg, they are displaying the __________ component of love. 26) ______
  A)  passion
  B)  intimacy
  C)  possession
  D)  commitment

27)  Pedro and Sierra have a relationship in which the desire for sexual activity and romance is very strong. Which component of love reflects this? 27) ______
  A)  passion
  B)  desire
  C)  intimacy
  D)  commitment

28)  Raj has realized that he is in love with his girlfriend and wants to maintain their relationship by getting married. This is characteristic of the __________ component of love. 28) ______
  A)  control
  B)  commitment
  C)  intimacy
  D)  passion

29)  Paige has had a few dates with Timothy. __________ is a strong predictor of whether they will keep dating. 29) ______
  A)  Passionate love
  B)  Intimate love
  C)  Companionate love
  D)  Monogamous love

30)  Paige and Timothy have been dating for over a year. Their romance will most likely break up without 30) ______
  A)  intimate love.
  B)  monogamous love.
  C)  passionate love.
  D)  companionate love.

31)  Paige and Timothy get married, but report that they feel less "in love" and pleased with married life. Which of the following statements explains this change in their feelings? 31) ______
  A)  Their relationship is probably lacking in companionate love.
  B)  Their relationship is probably lacking in passionate love.
  C)  They probably did not date long enough before marriage to learn whether they would be compatible as partners.
  D)  This is common for newlyweds, due to decreased time spent talking to each other and more time spent on mundane household chores.

32)  Paige and Timothy have been married for 30 years. When asked to compare their current relationship to when they were newlyweds, they are most likely to say that 32) ______
  A)  they love each other more now than they did earlier.
  B)  their relationships gradually transformed from companionate to passionate.
  C)  their marriages has more passion than earlier.
  D)  they love each other less than they did earlier.

33)  Because Paige and Timothy have been married for 30 years, we can anticipate that 33) ______
  A)  any conflicts are not addressed immediately, and stonewalling tactics are used until each of the partners is calm enough to talk about the problem.
  B)  they use constructive conflict resolution to solve differences of opinion.
  C)  they avoid discussions rather than negotiate conflicts communicatively.
  D)  they verbalize infrequent expressions of their love and commitment to each other.

34)  Ariana developed secure attachments to her parents when she was small. Chances are high that her love relationship will be characterized in terms of 34) ______
  A)  dependency, insecurity, and sacrifice.
  B)  trust, friendship, and happiness.
  C)  desperation, anxiety, and fear.
  D)  jealousy, possessiveness, and control.

35)  Because Asa's past relationships have been characterized by jealousy and emotional distance, he feels a great deal of mistrust for his love partners. He feels anxiety about people "getting too close" and stresses the need for independence in his relationships. Based on this information, we can conclude that Asa has a(n) __________ attachment history. 35) ______
  A)  resistant
  B)  trusting
  C)  avoidant
  D)  secure

36)  College students of Asian ethnicity are more likely than their Caucasian-American peers to endorse a view of love based on 36) ______
  A)  love.
  B)  passion.
  C)  sense of humor.
  D)  companionship.

37)  In adulthood, the friends we have tend to be 37) ______
  A)  similar to ourselves in most ways.
  B)  similar in social class but different in age or sex.
  C)  different from ourselves in most ways.
  D)  shorter-lived than childhood friendships.

38)  Friendship continuity is greater for __________, who also __________, which helps sustain the relationship. 38) ______
  A)  men; maintain friendships with women
  B)  women; maintain friendships with men
  C)  women; see their friends more often
  D)  men; have a greater competitive nature

39)  Which is true of the differences in friendships between men and women? 39) ______
  A)  Men have more intimate same-sex friendships than women do.
  B)  Women are reluctant to divulge information about themselves in the fear that their friends may not reciprocate.
  C)  Men are more likely to feel competition with male friends and to be reluctant to disclose any weaknesses.
  D)  Women prefer to "do something" when they get together.

40)  Which statement is true of long-lasting male friendships? 40) ______
  A)  They generally occur among unmarried men.
  B)  They engage in joint activities, but still limit personal disclosure.
  C)  They become more competitive.
  D)  They become closer and disclose more personal information.

41)  Matteo has just recently gotten married. What will probably happen to his same-sex friendships? 41) ______
  A)  He will share less personal information with his friends.
  B)  Those friendships will become stronger.
  C)  He will slowly reduce the number of same-sex friendships to one or two very special individuals.
  D)  He will depend on them more as confidants and less as teammates.

42)  Compared with same-sex friendships, friendships with people of the other sex 42) ______
  A)  tend to be much more intimate.
  B)  are more common for married men.
  C)  occur less often and don't last as long.
  D)  typically lead to romantic relationships.

43)  Which person will probably have the highest number of other-sex friends? 43) ______
  A)  Barry, a married father of four
  B)  Gary, who is married
  C)  Kari, an electrical engineer
  D)  Mary, a single mother and high-school dropout

44)  One benefit of other-sex friendships for men is that 44) ______
  A)  female friends offer objective perspectives on problems and situations that are not available from their male friends.
  B)  they frequently evolve into a sexual relationship as well.
  C)  they be competitive with their female friends without having to worry about poor sportsmanship.
  D)  they can confide more easily in female friends and subsequently broaden their expressive capacity.

45)  Sharon and Karen are sisters whose close-knit childhood relationship became more distant during adolescence. As both women marry, they can expect their interactions to become 45) ______
  A)  more frequent.
  B)  an increasing source of tension.
  C)  less important and more distant.
  D)  tied to career and family decisions.

46)  Thirty-three-year-old Claudia is unhappy because she had assumed that she would be married with children by this time in her life, yet she is still single. Claudia is experiencing 46) ______
  A)  loneliness.
  B)  depression.
  C)  stress.
  D)  introversion.

47)  Loneliness peaks during the __________, because __________. 47) ______
  A)  late teens and early twenties; most people must develop new relationships as they move through school and work settings
  B)  late forties and early fifties; the children have left home and parents are dealing with the "empty nest" syndrome
  C)  seventies; older adults are dealing with the deaths of friends and family members
  D)  seventies; most women outlive their spouses

48)  If they are all statistically average, which of these people is most likely to be lonely? 48) ______
  A)  Miguel, who is 50 years old and has recently married
  B)  Janine, who is 30 years old and has never married
  C)  Barbara, who is 25 years old and was just divorced
  D)  Steven, who is 40 years old and has been married for 20 years

49)  Why do single men feel lonelier than single women? 49) ______
  A)  Men associate dating with feelings of success and popularity, so they reflect more negatively on a lack of romantic involvement.
  B)  They have fewer alternatives for satisfying intimacy needs.
  C)  They have more difficulty than women reconciling the life they desire with the life they have.
  D)  They tend to view their lives as containing fewer friendships than is actually the case.

50)  Which person is more likely to experience loneliness? 50) ______
  A)  Jos, who is sensitive and socially responsive
  B)  Hui-Ching, who is outgoing and talkative
  C)  Sungti, who is aggressive and hostile
  D)  Julia, who is socially anxious

51)  The motivation to take social risks and reach out to others 51) ______
  A)  could be considered a beneficial outcome of loneliness.
  B)  has no impact on a person's loneliness.
  C)  can be the impetus for divorce among happily married couples.
  D)  is completely lacking in people who experience loneliness.

52)  Harper leaves home to attend college and lives on her own until she marries. As her own children grow up and leave home, her parenting responsibilities in turn diminish. She eventually retires and endures the death of her husband. The sequence of phases that Harper has experienced is referred to as the 52) ______
  A)  cultural structure.
  B)  family life cycle.
  C)  developmental stage.
  D)  social clock.

53)  The wide variations in when, how, and in what ways families develop and change most clearly indicates that 53) ______
  A)  many families do not follow the family life cycle.
  B)  more women should stay home with their children.
  C)  the family is falling apart and must be replaced.
  D)  government legislation is needed to support families.

54)  Most industrialized nations show which trend in the average age in which young children leave home? 54) ______
  A)  The average age of leaving has decreased.
  B)  The average age of leaving children has stayed consistent, but the age of the parents has increased steadily.
  C)  The average age of leaving has stayed about the same.
  D)  The average age of leaving has consistently increased.

55)  Which individual would typically leave home at an early age? 55) ______
  A)  a student entering the work world after college
  B)  a child leaving to get married
  C)  a child who wants to escape family friction
  D)  a child from a dual-parent home

56)  Gerald is leaving his parents' home. Compared to previous generations, he is more likely to be doing this because 56) ______
  A)  he is going to college.
  B)  of a desire to be independent.
  C)  he is getting married.
  D)  of family conflict with his stepfather.

57)  Penny left home to attend college, but is living with her parents again now that she has her degree. Penny is 57) ______
  A)  experiencing a common event among unmarried adults.
  B)  unlikely to find a long-term romantic partner as long as she lives with her parents.
  C)  exhibiting poor psychological adjustment.
  D)  probably too dependent on her parents.

58)  Which individual is more likely to live on his/her own? 58) ______
  A)  Julia, an economically successful Caucasian-American
  B)  Mae Ling, an unmarried Asian-American
  C)  Roderick, an African-American living in poverty
  D)  Marisa, an unmarried Latina

59)  Which of these African-American women will probably report fewer negative interactions with her mother than the others? 59) ______
  A)  Gwendolyn, who has moved out of her parents' home to attend college
  B)  Nari, who is moving out of her parents' home to live by herself
  C)  LaTasha, who still lives with her mother
  D)  Talia, who moved away to live with her boyfriend and is now moving back to her parents' home

60)  A child who leaves home for independent living at an unusually early age has a strong chance of experiencing 60) ______
  A)  an increased sense of autonomy.
  B)  a better parental relationship.
  C)  an unsuccessful marriage and career.
  D)  a higher level of education.

61)  The average age of first marriage has 61) ______
  A)  has remained constant for men but increased for women over the last decade.
  B)  increased for both men and women over the last half century.
  C)  increased, while the number of marriages has decreased overall.
  D)  decreased for both men and women over the last two decades.

62)  Recent changes in North American gender role expectations have affected marriage primarily in that 62) ______
  A)  men are under pressure from an increasingly feminist society.
  B)  sex lives are less satisfying without traditional gender roles.
  C)  they have caused the increase in the United States divorce rate.
  D)  new couples must work harder to define their relationships.

63)  Which couple will face extra challenges in achieving a successful transition to married life? 63) ______
  A)  Jeff and Val, both college graduates, who married at age 28
  B)  Ken, an African American, and Sarita, an East Indian, who married at age 23
  C)  Rudy and Louise, both German, who married at age 25
  D)  Hector and Maria, both Mexican, who married at age 30

64)  The most consistent predictor of marital stability is 64) ______
  A)  family income.
  B)  the educational level of the husband.
  C)  the educational level of the wife.
  D)  the age of the bride and groom at marriage.

65)  A marriage in which the husband is the head of the household and has responsibility for financial matters while the wife devotes herself to providing a nurturing, comfortable home for her husband and children is called a(n) __________ marriage. 65) ______
  A)  fixed
  B)  egalitarian
  C)  balanced
  D)  traditional

66)  Kyra and Aidan relate to each other as equals, and share the power and authority in their family. Aidan helps with cooking and cleaning and Kyra maintains their financial records. They have a(n) __________ marriage. 66) ______
  A)  feminist
  B)  egalitarian
  C)  liberated
  D)  traditional

67)  Both Barry and his wife Veronica work. Which situation is probably true in their household? 67) ______
  A)  Neither Barry nor Veronica does household work, because they hire a cleaning service.
  B)  Barry does some household work, but Veronica does much more.
  C)  Barry does not do any more household work than his friends with nonworking spouses.
  D)  Barry and Veronica share household tasks equally.

68)  Statistical averages would predict that which of these individuals is most likely to have a happy, satisfying marriage? 68) ______
  A)  Suzanna, who waited until she and her boyfriend both had secure jobs before getting married
  B)  Max, who is determined to avoid the problems that caused the divorces of his parents and brother
  C)  Joanne, who got pregnant on her honeymoon because she and her husband want a large family
  D)  Karl, who swept his childhood sweetheart off her feet and married her right after high school

69)  In successful marriages, both partners typically report 69) ______
  A)  a mixture of good times and bad times.
  B)  feeling unsatisfied most of the time.
  C)  feeling satisfied almost all the time.
  D)  steady declines in their happiness.

70)  Which of these beliefs about marriage is the most accurate? 70) ______
  A)  Most couples can expect that their marital happiness will decline during the first year.
  B)  In a good marriage, the partners will love each other no matter how they each behave.
  C)  The quality of a couple's sex life is the best predictor of their marital satisfaction.
  D)  If two people are truly in love, each will always know what the other needs to be happy.

71)  Pastor Al Otaiba notices a lot of conflict among the newly married couples in his church and wonders what he can do to support his young congregation. Based on research findings related to marital adjustment and quality, which of the following would you recommend? 71) ______
  A)  an all-night prayer vigil for each of the young couples
  B)  a lecture or sermon focusing on the sanctity of the marital bond
  C)  counseling that teaches effective communication and conflict management strategies
  D)  formation of a social support network for newlyweds

72)  Compared with couples in the 1950s, couples today tend to 72) ______
  A)  have children earlier, in the teens and early twenties.
  B)  have fewer children and have them earlier in life.
  C)  have just as many children, but later.
  D)  have fewer children and have them later in life.

73)  Which woman is more likely to delay parenthood or decide against it altogether? 73) ______
  A)  Jade, who has a traditional gender-role orientation
  B)  Jenny, who works at a low-level, undemanding job
  C)  Jai Mai, who is not employed outside the home at all
  D)  Jenaia, a high-income business professional

74)  Which of the following statements about family violence is correct? 74) ______
  A)  Women are more often the aggressors in domestic violence, but because they use verbal threats and slaps, most offenses are not considered to be "violent."
  B)  Rates of violence are lower in same-sex relationships than in heterosexual relationships.
  C)  While men and women report very similar rates of marital assault, women are more likely to experience physical assaults that lead to serious injury.
  D)  The risk of extreme assaults decreases when one partner moves out.

75)  Which of these factors is most likely to lead to spouse abuse? 75) ______
  A)  The victim is clingy, dependent, and immature.
  B)  The abuser is indifferent and distant to the spouse.
  C)  The abuser is dependent, jealous, and possessive.
  D)  The victim is nagging, hostile, and demanding.

76)  A warm and affectionate relationship, stimulation and fun, and growth and learning experiences are all reasons that couples cite for 76) ______
  A)  deciding to live together rather than get married.
  B)  choosing to have children.
  C)  choosing to get married.
  D)  deciding to remain childless.

77)  The most common disadvantage to having children given by contemporary couples is 77) ______
  A)  becoming immersed in adolescent culture.
  B)  adding to the world's population pressures.
  C)  fearing that the children will turn out badly.
  D)  the loss of freedom.

78)  When the first child is born into a family, what effect does this typically have on the parents' gender roles? 78) ______
  A)  It makes their gender roles more traditional.
  B)  It makes them both become less feminine.
  C)  It makes them both become more feminine.
  D)  It makes their gender roles less traditional.

79)  After childbirth, __________ predicts greater parental happiness and sensitivity to the baby. 79) ______
  A)  shared caregiving
  B)  engagement in traditional gender role activities
  C)  a higher SES
  D)  a decreased workload for both fathers and mothers

80)  When couples put off having their children until their late twenties or thirties, it will typically cause 80) ______
  A)  their gender roles to become more androgynous.
  B)  an easier transition to parenthood for both parents.
  C)  greater strain on their firmly established marriage.
  D)  an increased risk that they will become divorced.

81)  Lyle and Aida found their roles becoming more traditional after the birth of their first child, despite the egalitarian marriage they both had worked hard to achieve. Which of the following will probably occur after the birth of their second child? 81) ______
  A)  Their roles will become even more traditional, with Aida handling most of the child-rearing.
  B)  Their roles will switch and Lyle will become the primary caregiver.
  C)  Lyle will take on a greater parenting role.
  D)  The added stress of a second child will lead them to eventually divorce.

82)  Many new mothers who are eligible for unpaid work leave take far less than they are guaranteed by U.S. federal law. Why does this occur? 82) ______
  A)  More and more new fathers are taking the time off to care for the newborn, instead of their wives.
  B)  Most women are unaware of their maternity leave rights.
  C)  While they are required to offer maternity leave by law, many employers make it clear to expectant mothers that they stand to lose their jobs if they do not return relatively quickly after giving birth.
  D)  Financial pressures do not allow them to take extended time periods off without pay.

83)  Research results showing that children from larger families have lower IQ scores 83) ______
  A)  have resulted in a subsequent reduction in birth rates in among individuals with higher-IQs.
  B)  can be attributed to the trend for parents with lower IQs to have larger families.
  C)  prove the positive benefits of having fewer children per family.
  D)  are primarily conducted in nations where citizens are encouraged to limit reproduction to one child.

84)  Mr. and Mrs. Balogh work together as a coparenting team. This will probably result in 84) ______
  A)  a strengthening of traditional gender roles in their household.
  B)  children who are developing well.
  C)  an increase in marital discord as they struggle to compromise on various issues.
  D)  a decrease in individual feelings of parental competence, although their feelings of joint-competence will remain high.

85)  One of the most serious concerns of the majority of parents with young children is 85) ______
  A)  dealing with postpartum depression.
  B)  finding good child care.
  C)  negotiating their new gender roles.
  D)  forming a good bond with the child.

86)  Parents of __________ often report a dip in marital and life satisfaction and seek family therapy more often than at any other period of the life cycle. 86) ______
  A)  large families
  B)  infants
  C)  adolescents
  D)  young children

87)  Paolo is the father of an adolescent. Which of the following is he most likely to turn to for advice on how to relate to his child? 87) ______
  A)  his pediatrician
  B)  his wife
  C)  parent education courses
  D)  child-rearing books

88)  Improved parent-child interaction, more flexible parenting attitudes, and social support are all benefits of 88) ______
  A)  having children early in a marriage.
  B)  traditional child-rearing roles.
  C)  parent education courses.
  D)  the choice that many career-oriented women make to stay home with their children.

89)  In recent years, the number of young adults who are not living with an intimate partner has 89) ______
  A)  increased substantially.
  B)  remained quite constant.
  C)  decreased substantially.
  D)  varied unpredictably.

90)  Which groups of people are overrepresented among singles after age 30? 90) ______
  A)  women in prestigious careers and high-income ethnic minority men
  B)  men in blue-collar occupations and unemployed women
  C)  men in blue-collar occupations and women in prestigious careers
  D)  women in traditional career roles like teaching and nursing and men in prestigious careers

91)  __________ is one reason for the higher rate of never-married African Americans. 91) ______
  A)  Cultural views on the unimportance of marriage
  B)  Higher numbers of black female professionals
  C)  Increased rates of cross-race marriages
  D)  The high unemployment rate among black men

92)  Why are single men more likely to experience physical and mental health problems than single women? 92) ______
  A)  They have less social support than women, who rely on their intimate same-sex friendships.
  B)  Single men tend to ignore their health concerns more, whereas married men's wives help them maintain a healthier lifestyle.
  C)  Women depend less on their partners for emotional support, so they can remain psychologically healthier in the absence of a relationship.
  D)  Single women are forced to take a greater stand against the social clock, which promotes mental and psychological strength.

93)  Matt and India are involved in an intimate, sexual relationship and they share an apartment. Their relationship is referred to as 93) ______
  A)  noncommitted.
  B)  cohabitation.
  C)  informal.
  D)  paralegal.

94)  Which person is more likely to cohabit than get married? 94) ______
  A)  Tia, who has had few sexual partners
  B)  Tracy, who is very religious
  C)  Trevor, who is divorced
  D)  Tyler, who is very conservative

95)  When couples in North America live together before they get married, they are more likely to 95) ______
  A)  have children.
  B)  become divorced.
  C)  feel a strong commitment.
  D)  own a house jointly.

96)  One important difference between cohabiting couples and couples who are married is that cohabitors are more likely to 96) ______
  A)  be liberal and unconventional.
  B)  have warm, close ties with their parents.
  C)  feel a strong commitment to their partners.
  D)  be politically conservative and religious.

97)  Which couple is least likely work on their relationship and more likely to experience the negative outcomes often associated with cohabitation? 97) ______
  A)  a low-SES couple
  B)  a same-sex couple
  C)  a couple in their twenties who sees cohabitation as an alternative to marriage
  D)  a couple who is testing the relationship after a divorce in order to avoid a second failure

98)  When unmarried couples split up there tends to be 98) ______
  A)  less difficulty because there are no legal obligations.
  B)  a reduced level of emotional pain and suffering.
  C)  more social support from friends and family.
  D)  a bitter dispute over how things will be divided.

99)  The number of couples who choose not to have any children is difficult to determine because 99) ______
  A)  many deceptively tell researchers that would like to have children someday to avoid the social stigma associated with childlessness.
  B)  many couples actually have children from previous marriages.
  C)  childlessness is not always a permanent condition.
  D)  nobody has really studied this phenomenon thoroughly.

100)  All of the following are frequent characteristic of individuals who are voluntarily childless EXCEPT 100) ______
  A)  minimally committed to their chosen careers.
  B)  only children.
  C)  highly educated.
  D)  prestigious occupations.

101)  Kaipo and Noelani were not able to have children due to infertility. Their overall life contentment will depend on 101) ______
  A)  the degree to which they find compensating rewards in other areas of their lives.
  B)  whether they are able to adopt a child.
  C)  how their friends and family react to their childlessness.
  D)  the number of friends they have who are also childless.

102)  Which of the following is a strong predictor of divorce? 102) ______
  A)  strong religious beliefs
  B)  having more than 1 child within the first 3 years of marriage
  C)  poverty
  D)  drinking or using drugs

103)  Nyree and Kyle are divorcing. Research results from following families over two decades show that 103) ______
  A)  they are unlikely to end up in another long-term relationship.
  B)  chances are they will eventually remarry after several years.
  C)  their divorce negatively influences their grandchildren's chances for divorce.
  D)  their children are unlikely to marry.

104)  The number of divorces initiated by well-educated, career-oriented women is often caused by 104) ______
  A)  career-related social interactions for women that lead to infidelity.
  B)  disagreements between husband and wife on who should take time off from work to care for children.
  C)  a husband's lack of support for his wife's career.
  D)  a lack of willingness to compromise at home for women who are used to giving orders on the job.

105)  Which of these individuals is likely to have the most difficult time after a divorce? 105) ______
  A)  Abigail, who remarries shortly after the divorce
  B)  Anna, who does not remarry soon after the divorce
  C)  Abe, who does not remarry soon after the divorce
  D)  Adam, who remarries shortly after the divorce

106)  Which of the following is a reason why many remarriages end in divorce? 106) ______
  A)  Continued involvement of non-custodial parents in the lives of their children places additional stress on the marriage.
  B)  Practical matters like finances and child rearing are typically more important to one spouse than another.
  C)  Stepfamily situations create strong bonds among siblings.
  D)  Divorce is seen as a more acceptable solution by those who have already been divorced once.

107)  Because there is no warm attachment bond to build on, 107) ______
  A)  couples in remarriages have a more difficult time developing intimacy.
  B)  new stepparents often focus their attentions on the new spouse and ignore the stepchild.
  C)  a new stepparent often has difficulty disciplining a stepchild.
  D)  stepparents often try to spoil a stepchild in an attempt to win affection.

108)  Which of these stepparents is likely to have the easiest time establishing a positive relationship with the stepchildren? 108) ______
  A)  a stepmother who has biological children
  B)  a stepfather who has biological children
  C)  a stepfather with no biological children
  D)  a stepmother with no biological children

109)  __________ is a crucial component for stepparent adjustment. 109) ______
  A)  A caring relationship between step-grandparents and the step-grandchildren
  B)  The children's willingness to accept the parent's new spouse
  C)  The absence of the noncustodial parents in the lives of the children
  D)  The increased involvement of the absent biological parent

110)  When a young African-American woman has a child and then, several years later, marries a mannot the child's fatherthe typical result is that 110) ______
  A)  the marriage is less successful than other first marriages.
  B)  the couple functions like other first-marriage parents.
  C)  the extended family does not fully accept the marriage.
  D)  the children never fully accept the stepfather into the family.

111)  Robin is a single mother on welfare who is required by U.S. welfare policies to find work in order to sustain her benefits. If she is able to negotiate a situation where her job and her benefits are sufficient to lift her out of poverty, 111) ______
  A)  she will probably then have to forfeit her welfare supplements.
  B)  her children's academics and social behaviors will suffer due to the time that her job takes her away from her family.
  C)  her children will probably show gains in academic performance and social behavior.
  D)  then her children have a 99% probability of finishing high school and a 60% chance of attending college.

112)  Children of __________ are more likely to display antisocial behavior and do poorly in school because they __________. 112) ______
  A)  never-married mothers; lack the discipline a father provides
  B)  never-married mothers; lack the warmth and involvement of a father
  C)  never-married fathers; are unable to learn cooperative and caring behavior without proper modeling by a mother
  D)  twice-divorced mothers; are frustrated by the instability of their home life

113)  Research suggests that 113) ______
  A)  gay fathers are less responsive to their children's needs than heterosexual fathers.
  B)  gay parents are as committed and effective as heterosexual parents.
  C)  homosexual parents are more committed and effective than heterosexual parents.
  D)  gay fathers are less consistent in setting limits than heterosexual fathers.

114)  Trisha's mother is a lesbian. Trisha will most likely be 114) ______
  A)  more traditional in her gender roles.
  B)  psychologically maladjusted.
  C)  a lesbian as well.
  D)  heterosexual and well adjusted.

115)  Partners of homosexual parents tend to be more involved with caregiving responsibilities when 115) ______
  A)  the children are under age 5 when the relationship begins.
  B)  the biological parent stays home with the children and the partner provides the financial support for the family.
  C)  the children resulted from a previous heterosexual relationship.
  D)  the children were adopted or conceived through reproductive technologies.

116)  The Mitras are both college professors. Based upon career research, we can expect Mr. Mitra's career path to be __________ and Mrs. Mitra's career path to be __________. 116) ______
  A)  traditional; unconventional
  B)  continuous; discontinuous
  C)  discontinuous; continuous
  D)  unconventional; traditional

117)  After just 18 months on her first post-college job, Cecile has resigned. Information in your text would suggest that this is probably 117) ______
  A)  because her degree program did not adequately prepare her for real-life employment.
  B)  because she has experienced a gap between her expectations of what the job would be like and its reality.
  C)  due to her unwillingness to work as hard as her supervisors require.
  D)  due to her frustration with her older colleagues and their inability to keep up with the latest technology.

118)  Which man will probably emotionally "disengage" from work early in his life? 118) ______
  A)  Brandon, who is a low-level employee in a large company
  B)  Carlos, a CEO of a prestigious corporation
  C)  Bradley, who is experiencing a moderate level of career success
  D)  Guillermo, who finds his work challenging and satisfying

119)  Jonas has just started his career. Which person would probably make the most effective mentor for Jonas? 119) ______
  A)  another young graduate just starting his or her career
  B)  a female, rather than a male, mentor
  C)  a coworker with more experience than Jonas who is a lower-level employee
  D)  one of the top executives in the company

120)  Investigations of earning in the North American workplace indicate that 120) ______
  A)  salaries are relatively equal for men and women.
  B)  when the discontinuous nature of women's careers are taken into account, women seem to have been working longer than they really have, increasing the appearance of salary inequities.
  C)  the gender gap decreases as employees move through a company's ranks.
  D)  the gap between men's and women's earnings increases with age.

121)  Women who pursue careers in fields that are considered traditionally "masculine" are more likely to 121) ______
  A)  be dissatisfied with their work when they get it.
  B)  be less committed to their jobs and resign easily.
  C)  be more "feminine" in their attitudes toward life.
  D)  have "masculine" qualities with respect to work.

122)  Which person is likely to face the most discrimination in the workplace? 122) ______
  A)  Nathan, a white male
  B)  Neva, an African-American woman
  C)  Nell, a white female
  D)  Ned, an African-American man

123)  In a study of highly successful African-American women, the common themes that emerged from their experiences were 123) ______
  A)  sacrifice, self-doubt, and regret.
  B)  love, truth, and honesty.
  C)  persistence and a connection to others.
  D)  relatively little discrimination, prejudice, and pain.

124)  Silvia quit a high-paying, executive career to stay home and care for her two young children. Based on recent research on this trend, 124) ______
  A)  Silvia probably experienced an undue amount of pressure from her husband to rethink her family duties.
  B)  Silvia is an anomaly, as most successful women have worked too hard to give up their achievements for family reasons.
  C)  a lack of available, high-quality child-care is the major reason that women like Silvia leave the workforce.
  D)  Silvia's work environment was probably the most significant reason for leaving.

125)  Research shows that for most women who give up successful careers to stay home, 125) ______
  A)  the decision to leave the workforce is an agonizing one.
  B)  their spouses do not understand the balancing act performed by working mothers.
  C)  the decision to leave the workforce is easy, and they "never look back."
  D)  the opportunity to return to their careers when their children are older is always available.

126)  The major source of stress in dual-career families is 126) ______
  A)  interference from family members and friends.
  B)  conflict with traditional gender-role patterns.
  C)  role overload from job and family pressures.
  D)  negative attitudes from the extended family.

127)  Conflict between the demands of work and family in a dual-career household is reduced when the parents have 127) ______
  A)  more traditional gender roles.
  B)  a strong family background.
  C)  lower-income occupations with rigid schedules and little autonomy.
  D)  higher-status occupations that allow control over work and family domains.

128)  Emmanuel is the human resources person for a small company. He notices that many of his young, working parents are experiencing role overload, and feels that this negatively affects productivity. Which of the following recommendations could Emmanuel follow in order to improve employee performance while maintaining the company's bottom line? 128) ______
  A)  Hire only people without children.
  B)  Meet with the employees and let them know he understands their struggles, as his children were once young too.
  C)  Hire additional staff to support his struggling employees.
  D)  Implement flexible work-hour options.

 
ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.
129)  What is meant by the "social clock"? Describe evidence indicating that the social clock is a major source of personality change in adulthood.  

130)  Kaci and Hunter met and fell in love when they were both 22 years old. They married after knowing each other for 4 months, and had their first baby 10 months after their wedding. Although they struggled financially for a few years, Hunter finished college and now has a good job as a sales representative for a pharmaceutical company. Kaci wants to finish her education but will not return to college until their children are older, as she is the primary caregiver due to Hunter's travel schedule. Kaci's mother and stepfather live nearby, while her father and his third wife live in another state. Hunter's mother lives in the same town, but hasn't spoken to him since he married Kaci, and Hunter's father has been uninvolved in his life since he was a child. Based on information in your text, what can you predict about the long-term outcomes for this marriage?  

131)  What are strategies that can successfully help couples promote better mate selection and enhance relationship quality in marriage?  

132)  Describe how circumstances and personal characteristics contribute to loneliness.  

133)  Describe changes in the marital relationship after the birth of a baby. What steps can couples take to preserve marital happiness during this time?  

134)  Explain the different meanings that cohabitation has for couples.  

135)  Describe characteristics of individuals who are voluntarily childless, and their long-term happiness with the lifestyle.  

136)  Describe predictors of and factors relating to divorce. How do these factors impact the decision to end a marriage?