MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 
1)  Early adulthood is generally thought to be the period 1) ______
  A)  starting towards the end of high school and culminating with parenthood.
  B)  that extends from age 18 to 40.
  C)  from the early twenties through the thirties.
  D)  beginning after high school graduation and ending with the attainment of the first full-time job.

2)  Compared to the previous generation, today's young people 2) ______
  A)  have less desire to assume adult roles, resulting in a new phase of development called delayed adulthood.
  B)  move into adulthood slowly, often vacillating before making lasting commitments.
  C)  grow up much faster, and assume adult roles at much younger ages.
  D)  have greater difficulty recognizing the markers of adulthood and are subsequently unsure when they have been reached.

3)  The developmental phase called emerging adulthood developed because 3) ______
  A)  teenagers began assuming adult roles, but did not yet have the legal status to recognize them as adults.
  B)  researchers could not agree on when adulthood actually began, so they compromised with the "in-between" period of emerging adulthood.
  C)  there was no way to define the "gray" area between adolescence and adulthood.
  D)  the transition to adult roles has become so prolonged that an additional developmental period appeared.

4)  Which young person will probably not experience emerging adulthood, but rather a "floundering period?" 4) ______
  A)  Kent, who has just finished college but does not yet have a job in his chosen field
  B)  Loana, a low-SES teenager who has an academic scholarship to attend a local university next fall
  C)  Yusung, who will be attending a nationally renowned university several thousand miles away from home
  D)  Tyi-sanna, a low-SES teenager who dropped out of high school

5)  All members of our species experience __________, genetically influenced declines in the functioning of organs and systems. 5) ______
  A)  senescence
  B)  gender intensification
  C)  free radicalization
  D)  secular trends

6)  The leader of a small, developing nation wants to increase the average lifespan of her citizens. Based on research in industrialized countries, which of the following has been found to be clearly beneficial? 6) ______
  A)  develop better trade policies with foreign countries
  B)  increase educational standards
  C)  improve nutrition and sanitation
  D)  improve food processing procedures

7)  Which of these facts is the strongest evidence to CONTRADICT the theory that aging occurs as the body wears out from use? 7) ______
  A)  Moderate-to-vigorous exercise is related to longer lifespans.
  B)  Overweight individuals have shorter lifespans.
  C)  Heart disease is a major factor in premature death.
  D)  Faces typically show aging before the rest of the body.

8)  Earle's grandfather lived to be 87 and his father is still alive at the age of 92. Earle concludes that longevity is inherited and anticipates a very long life. Earle should know that 8) ______
  A)  there is no reliable data on the heritability of longevity, and random factors probably contributed to the long lives of his relatives.
  B)  rather than inheriting longevity directly, people probably inherit risk factors that influence their chances of dying earlier or later.
  C)  the heritability of longevity is approximately .95, indicating that longevity is directly related to genetic factors.
  D)  current generations are actually experiencing shorter lifespans than previous generations, due to environmental toxins and careers that require very little physical activity.

9)  While telomere-shortening causes cells to die, it also 9) ______
  A)  increases the lifespan of heart, liver, and kidney cells.
  B)  increases disease-causing mutations, which decrease as cells duplicate.
  C)  subsequently increases nerve regeneration and neural myelinization.
  D)  helps prevent disease-causing mutations, which become more likely as cells duplicate.

10)  The "random events" theory of biological aging attributes aging primarily to 10) ______
  A)  wear and tear caused by excessive use.
  B)  accidental injuries, such as pulled muscles.
  C)  spontaneous or externally caused mutations to DNA.
  D)  the programmed action of specific genes.

11)  Which of the following evidence has been found to support the "random events" theory of biological aging? 11) ______
  A)  Free radical activity has been verified in at least 600 plant and animal species to date.
  B)  Both animal and human studies confirm an increase in DNA breaks and deletions and damage to other cellular material with age.
  C)  Humans who maintain higher levels of physical activity over several decades show increased "wear and tear" on all body organs that subsequently reduces their maximum lifespan.
  D)  Genetic engineering that manipulates telomere activity has extended the lifespan of human cells.

12)  In the chemistry of aging, a free radical is 12) ______
  A)  a form of pollution that is produced by chemical factories.
  B)  a nutritional supplement that can reduce visible aging.
  C)  a highly reactive chemical produced naturally by the body that forms in the presence of oxygen.
  D)  the form of DNA that is found inside cancerous cells.

13)  Free radicals are thought to be involved in which of the following? 13) ______
  A)  sickle-cell disease
  B)  Down syndrome
  C)  disorders of aging
  D)  osteoporosis

14)  Preston has begun eating more foods rich in vitamins C and E and betacarotene. He believes this will help him to live longer. Preston should know that 14) ______
  A)  current research tends to support the genetic programming theory of aging, in which his diet plays no significant role.
  B)  a healthy diet will reduce the rate of cardiovascular disease and improve his overall chances for a longer life, but eating the specific foods he has chosen will have no proven value.
  C)  these ingredients forestall free-radical damage, so his new diet may improve his life expectancy.
  D)  the free radical theory is widely disputed in the scientific community, and there is questionable proof as to the efficacy of his new diet.

15)  According to the cross-linkage theory of aging, bonds between protein fibers in connective tissue can lead to 15) ______
  A)  reduced production of many hormones, especially estrogen.
  B)  the strengthening of skin and bone to reduce aging.
  C)  the ability of the body to use nutrients more efficiently.
  D)  loss of flexibility in the skin and clogging of arteries.

16)  In adults, the loss of growth hormone is associated with 16) ______
  A)  the development of bone cancer.
  B)  thickening of the skin.
  C)  loss of muscle and bone mass.
  D)  increased heart rate.

17)  Because hormones affect many body functions, disruptions to the endocrine system can have widespread effects on health and survival. To date, __________ is the safest approach to limit biological aspects of aging in the endocrine system. 17) ______
  A)  a program including a healthy diet and physical activity
  B)  genetic reconstruction
  C)  cellular therapy
  D)  hormone therapy

18)  The declines in immune system functioning that contribute to many conditions of aging appear to be 18) ______
  A)  caused by random DNA breakdowns and exacerbated by free radicals, except in cases of genetic programming.
  B)  caused by cross-linkage breakdown of connective tissues.
  C)  genetically programmed, but intensified by other aging processes.
  D)  caused by the random events.

19)  Scientists have found that __________ best explains the complexities of biological aging. 19) ______
  A)  a combination of these and other theories
  B)  the "random events" theory
  C)  cross-linkage theory
  D)  the "genetic programming" theory

20)  The physical changes that take place in early adulthood are typically 20) ______
  A)  involved in reproductive abilities.
  B)  related to improved performance.
  C)  gradual and difficult to notice.
  D)  focused on taste and smell.

21)  Which person has a higher risk of hypertension and heart disease? 21) ______
  A)  any young adult who engages in stressful exercise
  B)  Ming, an Asian-American female
  C)  Erica, a white female
  D)  Ida, an African-American female

22)  The ability of a person's heart to meet the body's oxygen requirements during normal, everyday activity shows which of these patterns of change during adulthood? 22) ______
  A)  It remains unchanged throughout adulthood.
  B)  It increases gradually and steadily until age 50.
  C)  It declines gradually and steadily after age 30.
  D)  It increases slightly until age 40, then drops rapidly.

23)  Jacqui is an avid athlete. She believes that her physical activity will protect her heart from age-related performance declines. Jacqui should know that 23) ______
  A)  the only heart performance declines related to age occur during stressful exercise.
  B)  there are no age-related declines in heart performance, but she should continue to exercise anyway because of the other health benefits involved.
  C)  these declines are genetically programmed and cannot be avoided.
  D)  age-related performance declines are most evident under typical conditions, as measured by heart rate in relation to volume of blood pumped.

24)  When an adult suffers from atherosclerosis, or deposits of fatty plaque on the walls of the arteries, it typically develops 24) ______
  A)  after age 40 in individuals who showed no signs of it earlier.
  B)  very slightly before age 60, but can become serious after that.
  C)  very rapidly in extreme old age, leading to sudden heart failure.
  D)  early in life and progresses to become a serious illness.

25)  Attempts to improve diet and exercise and decrease cigarette smoking 25) ______
  A)  have resulted in a considerable decrease in heart disease.
  B)  have resulted in some decreases in lung disease, but heart disease continues to rise.
  C)  are failing and the North American population is becoming increasingly unhealthy.
  D)  has improved the overall health of individuals from high-SES backgrounds only.

26)  Yao is 45 years old. How has the maximum vital capacity of his lungs changed from when he was 25? 26) ______
  A)  It has decreased by about 50 percent.
  B)  It has remained constant.
  C)  The maximum vital capacity has remained unchanged while at rest, but has increased by about 15% during physical exertion.
  D)  It has decreased by about 20 percent.

27)  Imagine that you are a researcher who wants to study the impact of biological aging on motor skills. What type of people are you most likely to study? 27) ______
  A)  outstanding athletes
  B)  individuals who exercise occasionally
  C)  people who never exercise
  D)  people who exercise frequently

28)  Which type of motor skills peak latest in life? 28) ______
  A)  gross body coordination
  B)  skills that require either stamina or precise motor control
  C)  explosive strength
  D)  speed of limb movement

29)  Juan is a tennis player; Miguel is a golfer. Which statement below is correct? 29) ______
  A)  Both athletes' skills will peak in their early twenties.
  B)  Both athletes' skills will peak in their late thirties.
  C)  Miguel's skills will peak in his late twenties or early thirties.
  D)  Juan's athletic skills will peak in his early thirties.

30)  Which statement best summarizes age-related changes in athletic skills? 30) ______
  A)  The age at which athletic skills peak gets older with each generation, and superb athletes are generally the only individuals who notice age-related declines in performance.
  B)  Athletic skills usually peak during early adulthood, with certain skills peaking later in life, and all skills showing marked decline after the age of 40.
  C)  Athletic skills peak during early adulthood, then decline at a steady rate over the rest of the lifespan.
  D)  Although athletic skills are at their best in early adulthood, biological aging accounts for only a small part of age-related decline until advanced old age.

31)  Object A is a white blood cell that originates in the bone marrow and matures in the thymus. Object A attacks foreign substances in the body and is referred to as a(n) 31) ______
  A)  antigen.
  B)  T cell.
  C)  B cell.
  D)  biodefense.

32)  One factor that contributes to the loss of efficiency of the immune system as we age is the 32) ______
  A)  enlargement of the prostate gland.
  B)  enlargement of the pituitary gland.
  C)  reduction in thyroid hormone.
  D)  shrinkage of the thymus gland.

33)  Which of the following illustrates the relationship between stress and the immune system? 33) ______
  A)  Benny smokes and is a heavy drinker, yet rarely gets sick.
  B)  Kenny is in excellent health, yet has very bad allergies.
  C)  Jenny has a nagging cold throughout semester finals.
  D)  Denny gets sick right before a vacation he was looking forward to.

34)  The most important cause of the age-related drop in female fertility is 34) ______
  A)  the inability of the uterus to support a developing fetus.
  B)  a decreased sperm concentration in the male partner.
  C)  a decline in reserve ova.
  D)  chromosomal disorders.

35)  Mr. and Mrs. Izzo are in their early forties and wish to start a family. They realize their reduced chances of becoming pregnant, and are willing to use reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilization in order to start their family. The Izzos should know that 35) ______
  A)  reproductive capacity does not tend to decline until the mid-forties, so their chances for getting pregnant without additional support are still high.
  B)  even if in vitro fertilization is successful, Mrs. Izzo's chances of carrying the baby past the first trimester are slim, due to her advanced age.
  C)  reproductive technologies have helped thousands of couples in their forties and beyond become parents, and scientific discoveries are advancing the age for successful childbearing even further.
  D)  the success rates of reproductive technologies drop sharply after age 35.

36)  Which of the following contributes to the differences in Canadian and American health and mortality rates? 36) ______
  A)  higher SES level overall for the American population
  B)  better medical technology and care available in America
  C)  lax gun registration, safety, and control policies in Canada
  D)  the existence of a national health insurance system in Canada

37)  __________ show strong and continuous relationships with almost every disease and health indicator. 37) ______
  A)  Size of family and number of marriages
  B)  Income, education, and occupational status
  C)  Gender and personality
  D)  Quality of family and peer relationships

38)  Mr. Hershey and Mr. Nestle are the same age. Mr. Hershey is economically well-off, while Mr. Nestle is dependent on government assistance. Which of the following statements is true? 38) ______
  A)  Differences in their health will be relatively small during early adulthood, widen during middle adulthood, with Mr. Nestle probably dying first in old age.
  B)  Mr. Nestle will have relatively poor health that will steadily improve over the course of his lifetime.
  C)  Mr. Nestle will have poorer health than Mr. Hershey, and this disparity will increase steadily over the course of their entire lives.
  D)  Mr. Hershey's health will steadily decline with age while Mr. Nestle's will steadily improve until their health status is roughly equal during their late forties and early fifties.

39)  Calvin has a 20 percent greater body weight than he should have, based on his age, sex, and physical build. Calvin is considered to be 39) ______
  A)  overweight, but not obese.
  B)  heavy, but not overweight or obese.
  C)  obese.
  D)  typical for the average North American male.

40)  Obesity is much more common among 40) ______
  A)  people with high income levels.
  B)  many ethnic minority groups.
  C)  middle-aged middle-income men.
  D)  women in their early twenties.

41)  When overweight and obesity rates are combined, __________ of Americans are considered to be at an unhealthy weight. 41) ______
  A)  65
  B)  45
  C)  85
  D)  25

42)  Which statement is true of American weight gain? 42) ______
  A)  Most people gain weight during the childhood years, lose it during the teenage years, and regain it after age 25.
  B)  The number of Americans who are obese and overweight has decreased slightly during the last decade, due to increased public awareness about diet and exercise.
  C)  Although the number of obese and overweight individuals has increased, Americans still rank 15th among industrialized nations in percentage of adults at-risk for weight-related health problems.
  D)  Many people show large weight gains between the ages of 25 and 40.

43)  Nadine gained 10 pounds between the ages of 25 and 50. She should know that 43) ______
  A)  this is normal, because of a drop in the basal metabolic rate.
  B)  the only reason for this gain is a lack of physical activity.
  C)  obesity like hers is a serious cause of major health problems.
  D)  her children are likely to suffer problems from being overweight.

44)  Joshua is curious about the amount of energy his body uses when he is completely at rest. Joshua is wondering about his BMR, or 44) ______
  A)  body's measurement at rest.
  B)  beginning, median, and resting requirements.
  C)  basal metabolic rate.
  D)  basic metabolism requirements.

45)  Compared with people of normal weight, obese individuals are more likely to be 45) ______
  A)  victims of severe hormonal imbalances.
  B)  denied apartments, college loans, and jobs.
  C)  middle- or upper-income individuals.
  D)  cheerful and optimistic in outlook on life.

46)  Two years ago, Mr. and Mrs. Dworet and their teenage son Russell were all obese and started a weight-loss program. Based on current research findings, we can anticipate that today 46) ______
  A)  Russell has maintained his weight loss, but his parents have rebounded to their original weights.
  B)  Russell lost and then regained his weight, while his parents were never able to lose more than a few pounds.
  C)  they are all at their ideal weights.
  D)  they have returned to, or are above, their previous weights.

47)  Baru wants to go on a diet. Based upon research findings, she should 47) ______
  A)  start a high-protein diet.
  B)  learn not to think too much about what or when to eat.
  C)  go on a high-carbohydrate diet.
  D)  restrict her calorie intake and fat while increasing her physical activity.

48)  Which statement about dieters is true? 48) ______
  A)  Most dieters are more successful at losing weight when they don't talk about their diet as this tends to lower self-esteem.
  B)  Most obese adults are advised by their doctors to go on a diet and to exercise.
  C)  The same percentage of dieters maintain weight loss after a short treatment (8-10 weeks) as after a longer treatment (25 to 40 weeks).
  D)  About one-third of the dieters are within normal weight range.

49)  Zenija is dieting and experiencing symptoms of "starvation syndrome." Zenija's symptoms are unlikely to include 49) ______
  A)  food revulsion.
  B)  weakness.
  C)  depression.
  D)  anxiety.

50)  The low rate of heart disease among black Africans 50) ______
  A)  can be attributed to social factors that stress extreme thinness.
  B)  is indicative of a lifestyle with too much physical activity.
  C)  has confounded researchers who study the genetic tendencies toward heart disease.
  D)  is evidence that the high incidence of heart disease among African-Americans is most likely due to excess fat consumption combined with societal conditions.

51)  __________ fat is solid at room temperature and is more likely to contribute to atherosclerosis than other types of fat. 51) ______
  A)  Saturated
  B)  Partially hydrogenated
  C)  Polysaturated
  D)  Unsaturated

52)  Mrs. Eazsol wants to improve her children's nutritional intake to avoid obesity and wonders what foods she should avoid. Based on information in your text, you should advise her to avoid foods with __________ and __________ in the ingredients list. 52) ______
  A)  gelatin; cocoa butter
  B)  partially hydrogenated palm kernel oil; soybean oil
  C)  high-fructose corn syrup; soy lecithin
  D)  high-fructose corn syrup; palm oil

53)  __________ has/have contributed to the obesity epidemic in the United States. 53) ______
  A)  Portion supersizing at fast-food restaurants
  B)  Shorter work weeks that result in increased eating out and snacking
  C)  Accurate information from national health experts about exercise recommendations
  D)  Increased rates of physical activity

54)  According to your text, the number of daily calories added to the average person's daily diet between the 1970s and 1990s was 54) ______
  A)  equal to twice the amount a person really needed.
  B)  equal to the amount of calories a teenager needs over a period of three days.
  C)  enough to add an extra pound every 20 days.
  D)  enough to move an average weight person from normal weight to obesity in less than 6 months.

55)  Studies of the exercise habits of Americans find that 55) ______
  A)  physically active individuals are no healthier than inactive ones.
  B)  over half of Americans do not know the benefits of regular exercise.
  C)  75 percent of all Americans engage in some regular physical fitness program.
  D)  most know its value, but only one-third engage in regular physical activity.

56)  Which individual would enjoy the best outcomes from physical exercise? 56) ______
  A)  Suzette, who is at-risk for breast cancer
  B)  Yulika, who is at-risk for skin cancer
  C)  Tom, who is at-risk for colon cancer
  D)  Gwiok, who is at-risk for lung cancer

57)  Regular physical activity has the psychological effect of 57) ______
  A)  creating depression and anxiety.
  B)  enhancing alertness and energy.
  C)  increasing levels of emotional stress.
  D)  making people relaxed and sleepy.

58)  Dorota wants to exercise at a level that will provide the best level of protection against illnesses such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes and colon cancer. She should exercise 58) ______
  A)  for 20 minutes, 3 times per week.
  B)  for at least an hour, once a week.
  C)  for 30 minutes, 2 times per week.
  D)  daily, with enough intensity to build up a sweat.

59)  Mr. Jochim has talked frequently with his teenage children about the hazards of illicit drug use, but feels he needs to do a better job discussing the more common substance abuses. If he wants to focus on the two most commonly abused substances with his children in a discussion this week, he should focus on 59) ______
  A)  cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption.
  B)  alcohol consumption and over-the-counter medications.
  C)  alcohol consumption and abuse of household cleaning products.
  D)  cigarette smoking and prescription medication abuse.

60)  The U.S. Surgeon General wants to target an anti-smoking campaign at the group of individuals for whom smoking rates have decreased very little in the last few decades. The campaign should be geared towards 60) ______
  A)  college students.
  B)  college graduates.
  C)  high school graduates.
  D)  high school dropouts.

61)  Long-term oxygen deprivation due to smoking results in all of the following EXCEPT 61) ______
  A)  higher rate of male impotence.
  B)  more rapid wrinkling of the skin.
  C)  damage to the retina of the eye.
  D)  higher sperm count.

62)  Thirty young people start to smoke before the age of 21. Statistically, how many will die from a smoking-related disease? 62) ______
  A)  15
  B)  10
  C)  5
  D)  30

63)  One hundred smokers have just joined a treatment program to stop smoking. Based on statistical averages, you can predict that 63) ______
  A)  more than half will successfully stop smoking for good.
  B)  70 to 90 of them will be smoking again after 1 year.
  C)  30 to 40 of them began smoking before the age of 21.
  D)  at least 60 of them are men over the age of 45.

64)  One difference in the development of alcoholism between men and women is that 64) ______
  A)  men's alcoholism often starts with beer-drinking, while women start with mixed drinks.
  B)  men typically start drinking in their teens and early twenties, while women typically experience onset in the twenties and thirties.
  C)  women usually start experimenting earlier, while alcoholism in men typically develops in the late twenties and early thirties.
  D)  alcoholism among men usually starts with social drinking, while women primarily drink alone.

65)  Alcoholism is a more common problem among cultures in which alcohol is 65) ______
  A)  a carefully controlled sign of adulthood.
  B)  regularly served to and around children.
  C)  forbidden for everyone of any age in society.
  D)  a traditional part of ceremonial activities.

66)  Which statement explains alcohol's effects on feelings of anxiety? 66) ______
  A)  In a heavy drinker, alcohol relieves anxiety at first but then induces it as the effects wear off, so the alcoholic drinks again.
  B)  Alcohol relieves anxiety, and then the alcoholic is no longer worried about getting drunk, so he or she continues to drink excessively.
  C)  Alcohol has no effects on anxiety, except an indirect effect on the family members of the alcoholic.
  D)  While many alcoholics say they drink to relieve stress, alcohol in fact induces anxiety in heavy drinkers, but its effects make them unaware of their increased anxiety level.

67)  Large percentages of highway fatalities, criminal activity, date rape, and domestic violence can be attributed to 67) ______
  A)  cigarette smoking.
  B)  obesity.
  C)  pornography.
  D)  alcohol abuse.

68)  The most successful treatments for alcohol problems emphasize 68) ______
  A)  accepting and supporting the alcoholic's need for alcohol.
  B)  a combination of personal, family, group and aversion therapies.
  C)  treating the alcoholic individual in isolation.
  D)  providing strict punishment for the misuses of alcohol.

69)  Which of the following is a method through which the majority of couples in lasting relationships meet each other? 69) ______
  A)  through personal ads
  B)  in singles bars
  C)  at night clubs
  D)  through work

70)  Moira is frustrated by her lack of success in meeting romantic partners at work and in singles clubs, and is interested in online dating services. Moira needs to know that 70) ______
  A)  online romances are generally more successful than those that started conventionally, as people tend to be more open and honest in written communication than in face-to-face interactions.
  B)  success rates are higher than with conventional strategies with 39% of relationships that begin online lasting more than a year.
  C)  success rates are lower than with conventional strategies, with only 18 percent of the relationships that actually evolve lasting for more than a year.
  D)  individuals with strong writing skills have more success with online dating services.

71)  Which person is likely to engage in higher rates of sexual activity? 71) ______
  A)  Tanya, who is divorced and dating
  B)  Torrie, who is married
  C)  Tony, a teenager
  D)  Ted, who is single and dating

72)  Which person is likely to report the lowest level of satisfaction with their sex life? 72) ______
  A)  James, who has been married to his wife for 15 years
  B)  Billy Ray, who has just started having sex with his girlfriend
  C)  Mark, who has been living with his girlfriend for the last four months
  D)  Christopher, who is single and has had five different partners in the last year

73)  Sexual difficulties are more common among all of the following groups of people EXCEPT 73) ______
  A)  married couples.
  B)  victims of sexual abuse or coercion.
  C)  unmarried people.
  D)  those who have had more than five partners.

74)  Researchers have found that satisfying sex generally involves 74) ______
  A)  spontaneity.
  B)  good technique.
  C)  an emotionally fulfilling relationship.
  D)  some type of fantasy fulfillment.

75)  Which statement most accurately reflects the sentiments of most Americans towards gay men, lesbians, and bisexuals? 75) ______
  A)  Most Americans support civil liberties and equal employment opportunities for gays, lesbians, and bisexuals.
  B)  Most Americans are bisexual.
  C)  Most Americans are opposed to homosexuality.
  D)  Most Americans approve of same-sex marriages and would advocate on behalf of gays, lesbians, and bisexuals if asked.

76)  Studies of the differences between men and women with respect to sexual activity have found that, when the small number of men with very many partners is excluded, the number of lifetime sexual partners is 76) ______
  A)  much lower for men than for women.
  B)  much higher for men than for women.
  C)  lower for men in their teens, but climbs steadily for men thereafter.
  D)  basically the same for men and women.

77)  Which of the following is inconsistent with the research findings on fidelity and long-term commitments between men and women? 77) ______
  A)  Conflicting goals and attitudes between men and women are greatest for young adults.
  B)  Women are more upset at the thought of their partner feeling affection for someone else.
  C)  Men see infidelity as a potential loss of investment by their partner for the children.
  D)  Men are more upset at the thought of their partner having sex with another person.

78)  Francesca openly lives her life as a lesbian. Statistics would indicate that Francesca 78) ______
  A)  probably lives in a small town.
  B)  probably has a college degree.
  C)  comes from a large family.
  D)  is most likely over 50 years old.

79)  Fred, Wilma, Barney, and Betty are four high school seniors. Based upon the current United States prevalence rate, how many of them are likely to contract an STD sometime in their lives? 79) ______
  A)  three
  B)  two
  C)  one
  D)  all four

80)  AIDS is spreading most rapidly in the U.S. through 80) ______
  A)  heterosexual contact among men who have many sexual partners.
  B)  homosexual contact in the gay community.
  C)  heterosexual contact in poverty-stricken minority groups with high rates of intravenous drug abuse.
  D)  the current population of thirty-something professionals, who contracted the virus as teenagers but are just now developing the symptoms.

81)  The majority of rape victims are __________, and the abusers are __________. 81) ______
  A)  intoxicated at the time of their attack; sober
  B)  under age 30; under age 20
  C)  under age 30; men they know well
  D)  unwilling to prosecute their attacker; knowledgeable in the legal defense system

82)  Jenny and Jere work in a large business office. Jenny can be characterized as a friendly person, while Jere is assertive. Jake, who also works in the office and has committed several unreported sexual assaults, is likely to 82) ______
  A)  attempt a sexual assault on Jere but not on Jenny.
  B)  admit responsibility for an attempted assault on either woman.
  C)  interpret Jenny's friendliness as seductiveness and Jere's assertiveness as hostility.
  D)  interpret the both women's interactions as displaying a desire for sexual intimacy.

83)  A victim of rape is more likely to blame herself if 83) ______
  A)  she didn't know the rapist.
  B)  she received support after trying to tell someone.
  C)  she has a history of sexual abuse.
  D)  she is over the age of 25.

84)  All of the following are important parts of fostering recovery for rape victims EXCEPT 84) ______
  A)  contact with a group of other rape survivors.
  B)  intensive questioning by police to file criminal charges.
  C)  planning to prevent reassault by the abuser.
  D)  routine screenings by doctors for signs of victimization.

85)  The array of physical and psychological symptoms that often appear 6 to 10 days before menstruation is referred to as __________ syndrome. 85) ______
  A)  malobstetrical
  B)  premenstrual
  C)  intrauterine
  D)  dysmenorrheal

86)  Worldwide studies of the occurrence of premenstrual syndrome find that 86) ______
  A)  it is equally common all over the world.
  B)  it is much more common in the United States than in other countries.
  C)  it is more common in underdeveloped, non-industrial countries.
  D)  it is more common in Western, industrialized countries.

87)  A successful cure for PMS 87) ______
  A)  must incorporate analgesics for pain, antidepressant medication, diuretics for fluid buildup, reduction in caffeine intake, exercise, and stress-reducing measures.
  B)  has not yet been discovered.
  C)  includes hormone therapy.
  D)  uses a combination of hormone therapy and sensitivity training for particular centers of the brain.

88)  A strong cardiovascular response, immune system interference, and reduced digestive activity are all symptoms of 88) ______
  A)  hypertension.
  B)  alcoholism.
  C)  genetically programmed aging.
  D)  psychological stress.

89)  Moniqua has just moved to another city after her divorce and is dealing with stress. Which of the following suggestions would have the highest probability of helping her to buffer the effects of stress? 89) ______
  A)  develop and maintain satisfying social ties
  B)  take anti-depressants
  C)  actively seek out a satisfying sexual relationship
  D)  hit the singles clubs and bars after work

90)  According to some theorists, cognitive development continues past the stages identified in Piaget's theory, leading to a stage called 90) ______
  A)  mensa mentation.
  B)  postformal thought.
  C)  advanced reasoning.
  D)  nonoperational cognition.

91)  Torri and her team at work are trying to determine the direction in which their division should focus. Because Torri's viewpoint is so different from everyone else's, she takes some time to reflect on the facts she analyzed, and how she arrived at her conclusion. Torri is engaged in 91) ______
  A)  dualistic thinking.
  B)  preformal thought.
  C)  meta-awareness.
  D)  epistemic cognition.

92)  According to Perry's study of adult thinking, which of the following statements is an example of dualistic thinking? 92) ______
  A)  "There is no absolute truth because there are multiple truths, each relative to its own context."
  B)  "Her answers are very embedded in the framework of her thoughts."
  C)  "I think my college professor is great, and really believe everything she says."
  D)  "Well, at first I thought I liked the movie, but then I decided I didn't."

93)  According to Perry's work, when older students view knowledge as embedded in a framework of thought with multiple truths, each relative to its own context, they are engaged in 93) ______
  A)  adaptive cognition.
  B)  postformal thought.
  C)  dualistic thinking.
  D)  relativistic thinking.

94)  Tyson has listened to his uncle rail against the "evils of immigration." On the other hand, his boss constantly discusses how our country is very dependent upon immigrant labor, and how citizens should work together to end the unfair treatment these workers receive. Instead of choosing between these opposing views, Tyson formulates his own perspective that synthesizes components of both arguments. Tyson's cognitive development reflects 94) ______
  A)  commitment within relativistic thinking.
  B)  dualistic thinking.
  C)  relativistic thinking.
  D)  metacognition.

95)  Professor Peabody wants to develop the epistemic cognition of his engineering students. Which of the following would you recommend? 95) ______
  A)  Allow students time to reflect on how they worked together as a team, and what problematic aspects of their communication could have improved the outcome.
  B)  Ask students to develop problems based upon situations that are meaningful or problematic for them.
  C)  Give them realistic and highly defined problems, but allow them complete freedom in working through to the solutions.
  D)  Give them realistic but ambiguous problems, and offer them encouragement and guidance as they work.

96)  According to Labouvie-Vief's theory of adult cognitive development, the change that occurs from adolescence to adulthood is primarily in the direction of 96) ______
  A)  nothing; in this theory, thinking doesn't change during adulthood.
  B)  increasing abstraction.
  C)  decreasing logic.
  D)  increasing pragmatism.

97)  Shelton has just started his own business. While he feels elation at the prospects of being able to do the work he has always dreamed of, he also acknowledges feelings of concern, fear, and disappointment at various aspects of his new life. Shelton's ability to reconcile these various issues reflects 97) ______
  A)  cognitive-affective complexity.
  B)  pragmatism.
  C)  expertise.
  D)  dualistic thinking.

98)  __________ is/are supported by the specialization that begins with selecting a college major or an occupation. 98) ______
  A)  Algorithms
  B)  Expertise
  C)  Hypotheses
  D)  Information

99)  One difference between an expert and a novice is that, when faced with a challenging problem to solve, the expert is more likely to 99) ______
  A)  solve it in a less creative, more mechanical way.
  B)  focus on specific surface features of the problem.
  C)  already know the answers to all meaningful problems.
  D)  analyze and categorize it before trying to solve it.

100)  A unique cognitive capacity that is required for mature creativity is the ability to 100) ______
  A)  ignore the practical issues involved in a solution.
  B)  put ideas together at random to see what comes out.
  C)  apply standard solutions in ways that are unusual.
  D)  formulate new, significant, and meaningful problems.

101)  Barbara is a musician, Chris is an artist, and Dennis is an engineer. Which of the following statements is probably true? 101) ______
  A)  Dennis's creativity will peak later than that of the other two.
  B)  Chris's creativity will be the last to peak.
  C)  Creativity will diminish equally among all three people.
  D)  Barbara will be the last to show a rise in creativity.

102)  Which of the following is a reason that creativity in women may be postponed or disrupted? 102) ______
  A)  child rearing
  B)  lack of drive to succeed
  C)  a supportive partner
  D)  insecure gender identity

103)  In addition to gaining academic knowledge from their courses, college students also experience psychological changes, including 103) ______
  A)  a decreased tolerance for people from diverse backgrounds.
  B)  confusion and uncertainty about their own inner identity.
  C)  an exposure to so many new ideas it leads to moral confusion.
  D)  the ability to apply reasoning to problems with no clear answer.

104)  College attendance will have the most psychological impact on which student? 104) ______
  A)  Allyson, who attends a prestigious university and commutes
  B)  Terryn, who attends a four-year institution and lives at home
  C)  Kristen, who attends a two-year institution and lives at home
  D)  Sara, who attends a four-year institution and lives on campus

105)  Which student is most at-risk for dropping out of college? 105) ______
  A)  a junior who lives on campus with 3 sophomores as dorm mates
  B)  a sophomore at a large state university
  C)  a freshman in his second semester at a highly selective school
  D)  a freshman in her first month at a school with low admission requirements

106)  Which of the following factors has been shown to reduce college ethnic minority students' desire to remain in school? 106) ______
  A)  lack of transportation to attend off-campus events
  B)  too much interference by college officials
  C)  experiencing disrespect on campus because of their ethnicity or religion
  D)  lack of educational aspirations

107)  A college that wishes to reduce substantially the number of students who drop out should most probably do which of the following? 107) ______
  A)  reach out to students in their first few weeks and months
  B)  encourage students to live off-campus in apartments
  C)  focus more attention on students who are about to graduate
  D)  offer students more privacy and freedom to explore

108)  Seven-year-old Kadeija fantasizes about becoming a detective when she grows up. Her desires stem from a television show about a young teenage sleuth. According to vocational development theorists, her current career preference 108) ______
  A)  is unrealistic, since it is impossible to get a detective license as a teenager.
  B)  will probably bear little relation to the career decisions that she will eventually make.
  C)  is atypical of most young children, who base their preferences on what jobs their parents have.
  D)  will probably be actualized, because she has already committed to a career at such a young age.

109)  The tentative period of occupational choice, during early and middle adolescence, begins with a focus on __________ and shifts to a focus on __________. 109) ______
  A)  interests; abilities and values
  B)  parental values; personal values
  C)  social value; income level
  D)  fantasy; crystallization

110)  Twenty-year-old Dominic explored the possibility of becoming a teacher by tutoring in an after-school program. He then chose to major in education. Dominic is in the __________ of vocational development. 110) ______
  A)  tentative period
  B)  realistic period
  C)  fantasy period
  D)  acquisition period

111)  Lauren enjoys working with ideas; Julia prefers interacting with people. According to Holland's six personality types, Lauren is considered __________ and Julia is considered __________. 111) ______
  A)  mastery oriented; network oriented
  B)  realistic; conventional
  C)  enterprising; effusive
  D)  investigative; social

112)  Katie enjoys solving important everyday problems and Mary enjoys emotion and individual expression. According to Holland's theory of six personality types, Katie is __________ and Mary is __________. 112) ______
  A)  investigative; social
  B)  conventional; unconventional
  C)  focused; diffuse
  D)  realistic; artistic

113)  Of the six personality types that affect vocational choice identified by Holland, someone who enjoys material possessions and social status is considered __________ and someone who enjoys adventure and is a strong leader is considered __________. 113) ______
  A)  demanding; encouraging
  B)  social; realistic
  C)  conventional; enterprising
  D)  neurotic; compulsive

114)  In recent years more than in past generations __________ powerfully predicts occupational status. 114) ______
  A)  parent's income
  B)  educational level
  C)  personality type
  D)  ethnic identity

115)  Jamie is a low-SES student who has earned a college scholarship to study political science. Based on the research reported in the text, which of the following factors probably most influenced her situation? 115) ______
  A)  attending political debates as part of a class field trip
  B)  having a close relationship with her high school social studies teacher
  C)  watching news coverage of Condoleeza Rice
  D)  being a volunteer in a tutoring program for low-SES students

116)  A dramatic rise in the numbers of employed mothers, who serve as models for their daughters, has resulted in 116) ______
  A)  increased interest by young women in occupations largely held by men.
  B)  a renewed interest in one-income families where the mother stays home and manages the household and children.
  C)  a reduced number of high school students who are prepared for the transition to college.
  D)  an intolerance for male-dominated office dynamics among the current generation of workers.

117)  Which of these facts most strongly CONTRADICTS the idea that women do not often succeed in male-dominated professions such as engineering or physics because they lack the ability? 117) ______
  A)  No one can measure the abilities needed for these professions.
  B)  There are no known biological differences in these abilities.
  C)  Many male supervisors are reluctant to hire women for these jobs.
  D)  Even mathematically-talented women choose not to enter these fields.

118)  Rachel is an academically gifted young woman with an interest in the sciences. Which career path is she more likely to take? 118) ______
  A)  astrophysics
  B)  medicine
  C)  architecture
  D)  engineering

119)  Bobby Joe is a high school graduate from the United States who chose not to go on to college. He is likely to 119) ______
  A)  be working in a temporary, unskilled job.
  B)  received job placement services during his transition from high school to the world of work.
  C)  have been involved in an apprenticeship program.
  D)  have received vocational training while in high school.

120)  Jesse is a 24-year-old male nurse. Research on men in nontraditional careers would suggest that Jesse 120) ______
  A)  has more liberal social attitudes than his peers in traditionally masculine occupations.
  B)  is likely to aspire to graduate education.
  C)  is less self-assured than other males his age.
  D)  rates occupational prestige as important to his job choice.

121)  Jessie is a 24-year-old male nurse. Based on information in your text, which person can we anticipate to have the most negative reaction to Jesse's career choice? 121) ______
  A)  a woman who is Jesse's coworker
  B)  a man in a traditionally masculine field
  C)  Jesse's supervisor
  D)  Jesse's girlfriend

122)  In the German work-study apprentice system, a young person who has earned an apprentice certificate 122) ______
  A)  can generally find a job only for the company that trained him or her.
  B)  will have established him/herself in a well-paid career with security and advancement possibilities by age 20.
  C)  must complete 3 more years of school before beginning a career.
  D)  is eligible to be hired only for low-level, unskilled jobs.

123)  North American employers regard the recent high school graduate as 123) ______
  A)  overly prepared in academic areas that do not relate to the business arena.
  B)  uninterested in jobs that require physical exertion in outdoor locations.
  C)  poorly prepared for skilled business and industrial occupations and manual trades.
  D)  far better prepared for the world of work than in past generations.

124)  A major obstacle to the implementation of an apprenticeship program that even Germany has not overcome is 124) ______
  A)  preventing low-SES youths from being concentrated in the lowest-skilled apprenticeship placements.
  B)  overcoming the reluctance of employers to assume part of the responsibility for vocational training.
  C)  include family counseling to help parents understand the importance of a college education.
  D)  ensuring cooperation between schools and businesses.