Chapter 12 - Emotional and Social Developments During Adolescence

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1)  According to Erikson, the major personality achievement during adolescence is 1) ______
  A)  trust.
  B)  identity.
  C)  intimacy.
  D)  autonomy.

2)  Yaya is trying to construct her identity. Based on Erikson's theory, which of the following would be of little concern to her? 2) ______
  A)  defining who she is
  B)  defining what she values
  C)  helping her friends define what their values are
  D)  defining what directions she chooses to pursue in life

3)  Erikson called the psychological conflict of adolescence 3) ______
  A)  self-esteem versus identity.
  B)  desires versus reality.
  C)  identity versus role confusion.
  D)  identity versus desires.

4)  Indigo has reached adolescence with a weak sense of trust. According to Erikson, she will 4) ______
  A)  develop this trust over time through her involvement in cliques and peer groups.
  B)  not engage in active exploration required to choose among alternatives.
  C)  fail to select a career that matches her interests and skills.
  D)  have trouble finding ideals to have faith in.

5)  Leslie is unable to select a vocation that matches her interests and skills. She probably 5) ______
  A)  lacks a sense of industry.
  B)  has no initiative.
  C)  has a weak sense of trust.
  D)  has little autonomy.

6)  Sixteen-year-old Isaac is going through a temporary period of confusion and distress. He is experimenting with alternatives and will finally settle on his own personal values and goals. In contrast to Erikson's interpretation of Isaac's behavior, current theorists would say that Issac is undergoing. 6) ______
  A)  an identity breakdown.
  B)  an identity crisis.
  C)  identity exploration.
  D)  identity confusion.

7)  Alba is a young adult who has not achieved a firm sense of self. According to Erikson, she will 7) ______
  A)  have little religious faith or belief in a higher being.
  B)  find it difficult to risk intimacy.
  C)  probably work in a vocation that her parents select for her.
  D)  experience role confusion until her early twenties and then eventually develop an identity.

8)  According to Erikson, someone who suffers a negative outcome to the psychological conflict of adolescence will experience 8) ______
  A)  restricted exploration.
  B)  role confusion.
  C)  personality crisis.
  D)  basic commitment.

9)  Mr. and Mrs. Azpeitia notice that their 13-year-old daughter describes herself to her grandmother as "pretty smart," but refers to herself as "an airhead" around her friends. Similarly, she talks at dinner of the difficulties of being shy, but then laughs in agreement when her friends tease her about being very outgoing. If Mr. and Mrs. Azpeitia came to you for advice about their daughter, what could you tell them (based on information in your text)? 9) ______
  A)  The traits that she exhibits around her friends are probably an indication of who she really wants to be.
  B)  She will eventually resolve these inconsistencies by integrating principles that make sense out of the contradictions, but this typically does not occur until early adulthood.
  C)  As she gets older, their daughter's cognitive changes will allow her to combine her traits into an organized system.
  D)  The traits that she exhibits around her family are probably indicative of her true self.

10)  Which statement below exemplifies an adolescent's awareness that psychological qualities often change from one situation to the next? 10) ______
  A)  "I'm smart."
  B)  "I have a fairly good sense of humor."
  C)  "I think I'm a good person."
  D)  "I'm not shy."

11)  Compared to those of her ten-year-old sister, fifteen-year-old Lillie's self-descriptions will place more emphasis on 11) ______
  A)  social virtues.
  B)  physical appearance.
  C)  school performance.
  D)  favorite activities.

12)  As DeJuan enters adolescence, he is likely to add which dimensions of self-evaluation? 12) ______
  A)  close friendship, romantic appeal, job competence
  B)  athletic ability, academic ability, social awareness
  C)  physical attractiveness, romantic appeal, relationships with family members
  D)  friendship, honesty, integrity

13)  Landon's parents wonder how his self-esteem will change during adolescence. They would be interested to know that it will probably 13) ______
  A)  remain stable.
  B)  become more negative.
  C)  fluctuate a great deal.
  D)  differentiate and rise steadily.

14)  Which of the following is a powerful predictor of teenagers' judgments of the importance and usefulness of school subjects, their willingness to exert effort, their achievement, and their eventual career choices? 14) ______
  A)  athletic self-esteem
  B)  job competence
  C)  academic self-esteem
  D)  positive peer relationships

15)  Which of the following factors is predictive of high self-esteem in adolescence? 15) ______
  A)  conditional support from parents and peers
  B)  living in a neighborhood with many people of different ethnicities
  C)  "acting phony" to avoid peer disapproval
  D)  authoritative parenting

16)  Which child is at risk for a drop in self-esteem during adolescence? 16) ______
  A)  Kory, an Asian-American male
  B)  Kendall, a Caucasian-American female
  C)  Kynnetqua, an African-American female
  D)  Kevin, a Caucasian-American male

17)  Tony has thought hard and talked to many people before selecting a career in music. When asked if he'd change his mind if something better comes along, he said, "I doubt it." He is characterized by 17) ______
  A)  identity moratorium.
  B)  identity achievement.
  C)  identity foreclosure.
  D)  identity diffusion.

18)  Katarina accepts her family's political and religious beliefs without question. She is characterized by 18) ______
  A)  identity moratorium.
  B)  identity diffusion.
  C)  identity achievement.
  D)  identity foreclosure.

19)  When asked about his career plans, Simon says, "Haven't thought about it. Doesn't make too much difference what I do." He is characterized by 19) ______
  A)  identity diffusion.
  B)  identity achievement.
  C)  identity foreclosure.
  D)  identity moratorium.

20)  Shannon has begun to question her parents' religious beliefs and is visiting other churches to find out about alternatives. She is characterized by 20) ______
  A)  identity moratorium.
  B)  identity achievement.
  C)  identity diffusion.
  D)  identity foreclosure.

21)  Shirin has made more progress toward formulating an identity in the last 3 years than in the previous four years. Shirin will probably also sample a broad range of life experiences before choosing a life course. Shirin probably 21) ______
  A)  started working immediately after finishing high school.
  B)  is identity diffused.
  C)  is a college student.
  D)  dropped out of high school.

22)  Shane gets upset when his classmates disagree with him and regards their behavior as a threat. Shane is in which identity status? 22) ______
  A)  identity diffusion
  B)  identity foreclosure
  C)  identity conventionalism
  D)  identity moratorium

23)  Sixteen-year-old Nico tends to go along with whatever his friends are doing, has trouble with time management, and has a sense of hopelessness about the future. He has probably spent a long time in which identity status? 23) ______
  A)  identity foreclosure
  B)  identity achievement
  C)  identity diffusion
  D)  identity moratorium

24)  The possibility for reformulating identity exists 24) ______
  A)  primarily during the later teenage years.
  B)  for diffused and foreclosed adolescents only.
  C)  whenever the individual or his or her situational context changes.
  D)  only during middle childhood.

25)  Roberto insists that the absolute truth is always attainable. Roberto is probably 25) ______
  A)  identity achieved.
  B)  in a state of identity moratorium.
  C)  identity foreclosed.
  D)  identity diffused.

26)  Halleli is an adolescent who is identity achieved. As such, she will tend to 26) ______
  A)  doubt that anything can ever be known with certainty.
  B)  assume that absolute truth can always be achieved.
  C)  display more concrete and fewer formal operations.
  D)  believe rational criteria can be used to make choices.

27)  Mr. and Mrs. Zhao want to help their son develop more a mature identity. They can support this by 27) ______
  A)  developing close bonds while allowing freedom to voice his own opinions.
  B)  developing very close bonds with little chance for separation.
  C)  providing more specific direction about how he should behave.
  D)  providing low levels of warmth or open communication.

28)  Teenagers with warm, trusting peer ties are 28) ______
  A)  more likely to demonstrate career interests similar to their friends', reducing the amount of career exploration that they do.
  B)  more likely to be in academically challenging classes and aspire to higher-paying careers.
  C)  more involved in exploring relationship issues, such as what they value in close friends and in a life partner.
  D)  less likely to be involved in vocational training programs.

29)  __________ strongly influences the way adolescents construct a sense of self-continuity despite major personal changes. 29) ______
  A)  Age
  B)  Religious faith
  C)  Sexual identification
  D)  Culture

30)  Which of the following is a strategy for helping minority adolescents resolve identity conflicts constructively? 30) ______
  A)  preventing contact between ethnic groups.
  B)  respecting native language and learning styles in school.
  C)  encouraging ethnic pride and separation from other ethnic groups.
  D)  effective parenting that discourages students to explore the meaning of ethnicity in their own lives.

31)  Mr. and Mrs. Church want to test their five-year-old son's level of moral development. They make up the following silly rule: Always wash your elbows before going outside to play. Their son, Connor, doesn't even question the rule, and begins following it faithfully every day. Connor is in the __________ stage of morality. 31) ______
  A)  postconventional
  B)  universal ethical
  C)  autonomous
  D)  heteronomous

32)  The standard known as the Golden Rule is referred to as __________ in Piaget's stage of autonomous morality. 32) ______
  A)  a moral dilemma
  B)  ideal reciprocity
  C)  universal ethics
  D)  instrumental purpose

33)  An important criticism of Piaget's theory of moral development is that it 33) ______
  A)  overestimates the moral understanding of young children.
  B)  gets the overall direction of moral development backward.
  C)  underestimates the moral understanding of young children.
  D)  places too much emphasis on the concept of reciprocity.

34)  Kohlberg assessed moral maturity by describing a moral dilemma and analyzing a person's responses to it. His analysis focused primarily on which aspect of the response? 34) ______
  A)  emotions
  B)  content
  C)  reasoning
  D)  length

35)  In response to the Heinz dilemma, Juanita explains, "He shouldn't steal it, because if he does he could go to jail." She is at which of Kohlberg's stages of moral development? 35) ______
  A)  Stage 3
  B)  Stage 4
  C)  Stage 2
  D)  Stage 1

36)  In response to the Heinz dilemma, Tom states, "The druggist can do what he wants and Heinz can do what he wants to do." He is at which of Kohlberg's stages of moral development? 36) ______
  A)  Stage 2
  B)  Stage 3
  C)  Stage 4
  D)  Stage 1

37)  In response to the Heinz dilemma, Maria says, "The law was written to protect people, but in this case it's hurting his wife. So he should steal it, since by breaking the law he is really following its original meaning." She is at which of Kohlberg's stages of moral development? 37) ______
  A)  Stage 3
  B)  Stage 6
  C)  Stage 5
  D)  Stage 4

38)  In response to the Heinz dilemma, Martin explains, "A human life has more value than any sort of property. He should steal the drug to protect that life." He is at which of Kohlberg's stages of moral development? 38) ______
  A)  Stage 5
  B)  Stage 3
  C)  Stage 4
  D)  Stage 6

39)  In response to the Heinz dilemma, Jodie states, "If he doesn't do everything he can to save his wife, his family and friends will be ashamed of him, so I think he should steal it." She is at which of Kohlberg's stages of moral development? 39) ______
  A)  Stage 3
  B)  Stage 5
  C)  Stage 4
  D)  Stage 6

40)  In response to the Heinz dilemma, Amos says, "His wife's life is important, but society can't exist if people break the laws any time they want to. Heinz should not steal it because it would undermine society." He is at which of Kohlberg's stages of moral development? 40) ______
  A)  Stage 3
  B)  Stage 5
  C)  Stage 6
  D)  Stage 4

41)  Although Kohlberg proposes six stages of moral development, 41) ______
  A)  his research was only able to verify the first three stages.
  B)  current research suggests there are at least eight stages.
  C)  there is no evidence to support his theory.
  D)  most people never move beyond Stage 4.

42)  Kohlberg's Stage 6 is a matter of speculation that might only be achieved (theoretically) by 42) ______
  A)  people who have devoted their lives to religious thought and prayer.
  B)  individuals with advanced education, usually with training in philosophy.
  C)  individuals who have had training in Kohlberg's theories.
  D)  world leaders whose experiences have allowed them to make hundreds of moral decisions, all of which affect the fate of many.

43)  Because everyday decisions are complicated by real-world factors and emotions, the moral reasoning exhibited in such situations is generally 43) ______
  A)  determined by a "majority rules" mentality of those involved.
  B)  higher than that measured by Kohlberg's dilemmas.
  C)  easier for people to grapple with than hypothetical situations.
  D)  lower than that measured by Kohlberg's dilemmas.

44)  What is a likely deduction about the person who made the following statement: "It's a lot easier to be moral when you have nothing to lose"? 44) ______
  A)  She is dealing with a real-life conflict rather than a hypothetical one.
  B)  She is in Kohlberg's Stage 3.
  C)  She is amoral.
  D)  She is in Piaget's heteronomous morality stage.

45)  Consider the following statement: "An ethic of care should be considered when evaluating moral reasoning." The statement is consistent with the beliefs of which person? 45) ______
  A)  Gilligan
  B)  Kohlberg
  C)  Piaget
  D)  Erikson

46)  Dr. Maya wants to test Gilligan's claim that Kohlberg's approach to morality underestimates the moral maturity of females. If her research results are consistent with others who tested this claim, 46) ______
  A)  she will find that Kohlberg's approach overestimates the morality of females.
  B)  she will find that themes of both justice and caring appear in the responses of males but not females.
  C)  she will find little evidence to support this belief as females reason at the same or a higher stage as their male agemates.
  D)  her evidence will find that Gilligan is correct in her criticism. of Kohlberg.

47)  When differences in male and female morality do appear, they 47) ______
  A)  provide differing and often contradictory results.
  B)  show that women actually stress justice over care.
  C)  occur most often in real-life rather than hypothetical dilemmas.
  D)  are opposite of Gilligan's viewpoint.

48)  Which of the following issues will teenager Zandile argue are the province of the individual and not subject to control by authority figures? 48) ______
  A)  establishing a business
  B)  behavioral expectations in school settings
  C)  dress and hairstyle
  D)  wages and taxes

49)  Eventually, teenagers realize that violating strongly held conventionssuch as wearing a muddy t-shirt to a wedding 49) ______
  A)  can harm others by inducing distress or by undermining fair treatment.
  B)  is an individual's right, and that others who find the behavior problematic have a less securely developed sense of morality.
  C)  is indicative of a lack of social-conventional awareness and lower moral standards, and should be ignored as the person has no control over those developmental processes.
  D)  symbolizes that person's challenge to the social norm, and should be respected as such.

50)  Parents can help their adolescents achieve greater gains in moral understanding by 50) ______
  A)  remaining silent when adolescents struggle with exercises in reasoning.
  B)  listening critically to adolescents' ideas.
  C)  asking clarifying questions.
  D)  stating their own personal opinions frequently.

51)  Aida makes little or no gains in moral reasoning as a teenager. Her parents probably 51) ______
  A)  foster discussion of moral concerns.
  B)  have made good progress in their own moral reasoning.
  C)  lecture, use threats, and make sarcastic remarks.
  D)  listen sensitively and ask clarifying questions.

52)  Why are an individual's years of schooling such a powerful predictor of movement to Kohlberg's Stage 4 of moral reasoning? 52) ______
  A)  Post-secondary education is strongly affiliated with household income, which in turn correlates to moral development.
  B)  Attending college introduces young people to social issues that broaden their perspective-taking opportunities.
  C)  Moral reasoning increases with age; the more years of schooling an individual has, the older they are.
  D)  Most colleges and universities require at least three undergraduate level classes on moral reasoning.

53)  Which interaction is more likely to increase levels of moral reasoning? 53) ______
  A)  A class watches a televised debate between two political candidates on a controversial subject.
  B)  A teenager heckles a woman who is protesting outside the state's capitol building.
  C)  Two friends confront and critique each others' viewpoints on a controversial topic.
  D)  An adolescent listens quietly to her friend's viewpoint and then says she agrees.

54)  People in tribal and village cultures rarely move beyond Kohlberg's Stage 3 because 54) ______
  A)  they do not have access to higher education, crucial to the development of higher moral reasoning.
  B)  they are not capable of moral reasoning at higher levels.
  C)  only individuals from Western cultures can attain higher moral reasoning.
  D)  Stages 4 through 6 reasoning depends on an understanding of the role of larger societal structures in resolving conflict and such structures do not exist in these cultures.

55)  In response to the Heinz dilemma, an elderly gentleman states, "The entire community is to blame for this situation. Heinz should not be facing this problem alone. It is everyone's responsibility to join in and get help for his wife." We can deduce from this statement that 55) ______
  A)  he probably did not understand the question.
  B)  this man is permanently stuck in Kohlberg's Stage 2.
  C)  he is at Kohlberg's Stage 6.
  D)  the gentleman probably comes from a small village or collectivist culture.

56)  Dan and Leon are both college sophomores. Leon is functioning at a higher moral reasoning level than Dan. What conclusion can we draw based on that knowledge? 56) ______
  A)  Dan is more likely to display behavior that is in line with his beliefs.
  B)  Leon is just as likely to cheat on tests as Dan.
  C)  Dan is actually more honest.
  D)  Leon is more likely to help, share, and defend victims of injustice.

57)  Azure works hard to behave in ways that she sees as moral and decent. Her sense of morality is very important to her self-concept. Azure's characteristics can be thought of as 57) ______
  A)  moral identity.
  B)  autonomy.
  C)  heteronomous morality.
  D)  moral self-relevance.

58)  Which statement best explains the development of moral self-relevance? 58) ______
  A)  Research has yet to discover the origins of a sense of moral self-relevance.
  B)  Authoritarian parenting is strongly linked to the development of moral self-relevance.
  C)  Close peer relationships have the greatest impact on moral self-relevance.
  D)  Just educational environments are most predictive of moral self-relevance as an adult.

59)  Teenagers from which country are most likely to report being religious? 59) ______
  A)  Canada
  B)  United States
  C)  Great Britain
  D)  Italy

60)  Which type of religious involvement has been shown to hinder the development of moral maturity? 60) ______
  A)  religious education
  B)  indoctrination into a religious cult
  C)  personal feelings of connection to a higher being
  D)  involvement in church youth groups

61)  Marla, who used to wear work shoes, jeans, and loose flannel shirts, suddenly starts dressing in skirts and heels and wearing makeup. She is showing evidence of 61) ______
  A)  the Oedipal conflict.
  B)  identity foreclosure.
  C)  gender intensification.
  D)  social androgyny.

62)  Which individual will likely show stronger gender intensification? 62) ______
  A)  Eve, a 10-year-old girl
  B)  Tamar, a teenage girl
  C)  Evan, a 10-year-old boy
  D)  Reece, a teenage boy

63)  Which of the following contributes to gender intensification in adolescence? 63) ______
  A)  course offerings (home economics or shop classes) of high schools
  B)  the magnification of sex differences in appearance caused by puberty
  C)  sexual content in R-rated movies
  D)  decreased concern for what others think

64)  Which child is likely to be psychologically healthier? 64) ______
  A)  Maria, who has a strong feminine gender identity
  B)  Luis, who has a strong masculine gender identity
  C)  Gordon, who has a strong feminine gender identity
  D)  Gabriella, who has an androgynous gender identity

65)  Civic responsibility involves 65) ______
  A)  a focus on personal gain and material wealth.
  B)  knowledge of political issues and the means to resolve differing views fairly.
  C)  lack of attachment to the community and wanting to make a difference.
  D)  moral development at Kohlberg's Stage 4 or higher.

66)  Which statement would be typical for an adolescent who holds socially responsible values? 66) ______
  A)  "I think most people who live in poverty have lower intelligence than those who are economically independent."
  B)  "If someone is homeless, it's probably because they have personal problems...drugs or drinking or something like that."
  C)  "My parents don't like to talk about controversial issues."
  D)  "I think the unemployment rate is caused by a combination of government policies and the current state of the economy."

67)  Melia is low-SES, inner-city teenager who expresses high interest in contributing to society. Melia probably 67) ______
  A)  attends a school where civic opportunities are required of all students.
  B)  will enter a career that allows her to use her civic interests to improve her own neighborhood.
  C)  has far less knowledge and engagement in civic activities than her interest would indicate.
  D)  participates regularly in civic activities.

68)  Shobana wants to rely more on herself than on her parents when decisions come up that affect her. She feels more independent from her parents than at any other time of her life. Shobana is developing 68) ______
  A)  individuality.
  B)  identity diffusion.
  C)  identity foreclosure.
  D)  autonomy.

69)  During adolescence, an improved ability to reason about social relationships leads teenagers to __________ their parents. 69) ______
  A)  lose respect for
  B)  feel sorry for
  C)  idolize
  D)  deidealize

70)  Mr. and Mrs. McDermott's three children all have low self-esteem, struggle with depression, and exhibit antisocial behavior. Mr. and Mrs. McDermott probably incorporate which of the following parenting techniques? 70) ______
  A)  psychologically supportive behaviors
  B)  firm monitoring of children's activities
  C)  permissiveness and noninterference
  D)  coercive or controlling behaviors

71)  Parent-child relations in adolescence can be better understood if we keep in mind that 71) ______
  A)  both parents and teenagers are undergoing major life transitions.
  B)  parents have very different gender stereotypes than adolescents.
  C)  teenagers are focused on their families more than ever before.
  D)  adolescents have not yet achieved formal operational thinking.

72)  Mr. and Mrs. Santistevan wonder what they can do to promote the mental health of their two teenage children. They should know that __________ is the single most consistent predictor of mental health. 72) ______
  A)  strong sibling affection
  B)  the quality of the parent-child relationship
  C)  early granting of autonomy
  D)  the level of moral self-relevance achieved

73)  Which of the following is a positive outcome of mild family conflict? 73) ______
  A)  Conflicts inform parents of the changing needs and expectations of their children, signaling that adjustments in the parent-child relationship are necessary.
  B)  Mild conflicts help everyone in the family appreciate nonconflict-ridden times.
  C)  Occasional conflicts signal that the parents are probably slightly overprotective and need to consider greater autonomy granting.
  D)  Conflicts during the teenage years are expected by parents, who would be worried that something were amiss if they did not surface occasionally.

74)  Renata lives in a dangerous neighborhood. As a result, her parents maintain tighter control and put more pressure on her to behave in a safe manner. Renata is likely to 74) ______
  A)  resent the lack of freedom that she has in comparison to her friends.
  B)  interpret her parents' behavior as a sign of parental caring.
  C)  exhibit more anxiety and depression than her peers whose parents are not as strict.
  D)  experience more conflict due to their controlling parenting style.

75)  Which family is likely to grant its teenager an appropriate degree of autonomy? 75) ______
  A)  Karina is being raised by her grandmother, who has been out of work for nearly 7 months.
  B)  Bettina's parents are divorcing and fighting over custody.
  C)  Martina's parents both hold time-consuming, stressful jobs.
  D)  Serena's parents are financially secure, invested in their work, and content in their marriage.

76)  Teenagers who develop well despite family stresses tend to have 76) ______
  A)  high self-esteem.
  B)  an intense, driven personality.
  C)  a bond with an adult outside the family who cares deeply for their well-being.
  D)  a firm parent who combines structure with strong discipline.

77)  As younger siblings mature and become more self-sufficient, 77) ______
  A)  they depend more on the advice of older siblings on wardrobe and dating issues than on their parents.
  B)  the relationships of same-sex siblings strengthen, while opposite-sex sibling relationships become more distant.
  C)  they accept less direction from their older brothers and sisters.
  D)  girls work harder than boys to maintain relationships with siblings.

78)  Smita and Shailaja have always had a very strong sibling relationship. As they enter the teenage years, we can expect their relationship to become 78) ______
  A)  more unequal.
  B)  more intense.
  C)  hostile and quarrelsome.
  D)  less intense.

79)  Teenagers in the United States spend more time together outside the classroom than do teenagers in Japan and Taiwan, because 79) ______
  A)  more teens in the United States come from large families.
  B)  of a shorter school year and less demanding academic standards.
  C)  there is greater flexibility in school hours in Japan and Taiwan.
  D)  the United States has fewer public gathering places for teens.

80)  The number of "best friends" 80) ______
  A)  steadily increases during adolescence as teenagers fine-tune their social skills.
  B)  declines during adolescence to about one or two in adulthood.
  C)  is generally larger for girls than for boys.
  D)  is the marker by which adolescents measure popularity.

81)  When asked about the meaning of friendship, teenagers stress which of the following characteristics? 81) ______
  A)  attractiveness and popularity
  B)  common interests and activities
  C)  kindness and happiness
  D)  intimacy and loyalty

82)  Which two pairs are typical of adolescent friends? 82) ______
  A)  Jayme and Somer, who are alike in identity status, educational aspirations, and political beliefs
  B)  Bella and Kate, who argue a lot
  C)  Autumn and Skye, who are very different in identity status, educational aspirations, and political beliefs
  D)  Connora boy and Lizzya girl

83)  Teenage boys' friendships tend to display more intimacy if the boys are 83) ______
  A)  highly athletic.
  B)  strongly masculine.
  C)  androgynous.
  D)  more intelligent.

84)  Which of the following activities among friends can spark anxiety or depression? 84) ______
  A)  competition for similar goals
  B)  formation of a clique
  C)  self-disclosure
  D)  corumination

85)  Selena and Monica are friends. As the amount of instant messaging between the friends increases, they will 85) ______
  A)  probably state that the intimacy of their relationship has increased as well.
  B)  likely engage in less face-to-face activity during the school day.
  C)  engage in more relational aggression, due to the relative anonymity of computer versus face-to-face interactions.
  D)  feel less emotionally connected to each other.

86)  Kai-Chien experiences high levels of parental conflict and peer victimization. When asked by an online friend for a face-to-face meeting, Kai-Chien is likely to 86) ______
  A)  report the incident to a teacher rather than a parent.
  B)  attend that meeting, without telling anyone.
  C)  avoid the meeting and terminate the friendship.
  D)  attend the meeting, but bring a friend along.

87)  Tatiana tells her best friends her deepest thoughts and secrets. This type of self-disclosure 87) ______
  A)  is rare among teenage girls.
  B)  typically happens with teenagers who do not have a strong relationship with their parents.
  C)  is a precursor to the disclosure experienced in later romantic relationships.
  D)  is hazardous to the self-concept, as friends are rarely able to keep secrets and hurt feelings result.

88)  Compared with the peer groups of middle childhood, adolescent peer groups are 88) ______
  A)  less tightly structured and exclusive.
  B)  not as constructive in their activities.
  C)  limited to peers of the same gender.
  D)  increasingly common and more tightly organized.

89)  Nycole spends a lot of her time with a group of 5 friends and have similar family backgrounds, attitudes, and values. These friends are her 89) ______
  A)  crowd.
  B)  club.
  C)  clique.
  D)  peer group.

90)  "Brains," "jocks," "preppies," and "partyers" are typical examples of high school 90) ______
  A)  cliques.
  B)  peer groups.
  C)  clubs.
  D)  crowds.

91)  Research findings indicate that 91) ______
  A)  crowds increase in importance throughout early adolescence.
  B)  mixed-sex cliques result in earlier sexual activity.
  C)  many peer group values are extensions of those acquired at home.
  D)  family experiences have little impact on the affect of peer pressure.

92)  Shauna's parents are authoritative. Nora's parents are permissive. Which of the statements below is probably true? 92) ______
  A)  The positive impact of having academically and socially skilled peers will be greatest for Nora.
  B)  Shauna and Nora will be equally impacted by associating with adolescents who engage in delinquent acts.
  C)  The positive impact of having academically and socially skilled peers will be greatest for Shauna.
  D)  The negative impact of having antisocial, drug-using friends will be greatest for Shauna.

93)  Which of the following statements about changes in crowds during high school is accurate? 93) ______
  A)  "Brains" and "normal " crowds grow as teenagers focus more on their future.
  B)  "Jock" crowds diminish and "brain" crowds increase as students become less impressed with athletic ability and more impressed with academic talent.
  C)  "Partyers" and "burnouts" crowds grow as more rigorous academic standards force students out of the "brains" crowd.
  D)  The "normal" crowd diminishes as its members move into more specific crowds.

94)  Which of the following is true of dating? 94) ______
  A)  Younger teenagers often mention sex as a reason for dating.
  B)  The beginning of dating is primarily regulated by the hormonal changes of puberty.
  C)  Younger teenagers often mention achieving peer status as a reason for dating.
  D)  Romantic involvements between children typically begin in elementary school.

95)  Which statement best summarizes influences on intimacy? 95) ______
  A)  Secure parental attachment positively influences friendship security, which in turn positively influences the security of romantic relationships.
  B)  Individuals who are foreclosed or diffused usually do not achieve romantic intimacy.
  C)  Teenage crowds provide practice in obtaining intimacy that then transfers later to individual relationships.
  D)  Individuals with many close friends tend to have less intimate romantic relationships.

96)  Your brother is concerned about his daughter, a 14-year-old in junior high, who is steadily dating a particular boy. You should tell him that 96) ______
  A)  relationships such as this can provide fun, nothing more.
  B)  early dating is related to delinquency and poor academic achievement.
  C)  this relationship is helping her develop valuable social skills.
  D)  this romantic involvement will probably last through college.

97)  Which two factors increase the likelihood of dating violence? 97) ______
  A)  early adolescent dating and a history of family aggression
  B)  low SES and lack of exposure to peers from other cultures or ethnic groups
  C)  group activities such as parties and dances and the presence of alcohol
  D)  early sexual activity and school stress

98)  The first dating relationships of homosexual youths tend to be short-lived and involve little emotional commitment because 98) ______
  A)  they are still questioning their sexual identity.
  B)  they are looking for relationships that are purely fun and nothing else.
  C)  they are not emotionally ready for more involved relationships.
  D)  they fear peer harassment and rejection.

99)  Mr. and Mrs. Alonso are worried about peer pressure and their adolescent daughter. They should know that teenagers feel the greatest pressure to conform to 99) ______
  A)  aspects of peer culture such as dress, grooming, and participation in social activities.
  B)  pressure to become more independent from their parents.
  C)  become sexually active.
  D)  engage in delinquent acts.

100)  Research findings on peer pressure show that 100) ______
  A)  peer pressure is usually directed toward negative outcomes or delinquent acts.
  B)  it is directly related to teenagers' values and behaviors.
  C)  parents and peers often act in concert toward desirable ends.
  D)  young people nearly always follow the dictates of peers.

101)  Which child will be more likely to give in to peer pressure? 101) ______
  A)  Miko, who is in the late adolescent stage of development
  B)  Mickey, who is in the middle adolescent stage of development
  C)  Miguel, who is in the early adolescent stage of development
  D)  Michael, who is in the preadolescent stage of development

102)  Shane's mother is very authoritarian and restrictive. The chances are high that Shane 102) ______
  A)  will not rely on friends for advice about his personal life.
  B)  will be more willing to break her rules under peer influence.
  C)  will avoid delinquent acts with his friends.
  D)  is not highly peer oriented.

103)  The most common psychological problem of adolescence is 103) ______
  A)  anorexia.
  B)  schizophrenia.
  C)  depression.
  D)  delinquency.

104)  Why is teenage depression often overlooked? 104) ______
  A)  Its characteristics are similar to those of ADHD.
  B)  Most cases of depression occur in girls, who are very good at hiding their symptoms.
  C)  Depressed teenagers often have depressed parents who are unable to recognize the symptoms in their children.
  D)  Its symptoms are often misinterpreted as stereotypical teenage behavior.

105)  Depressed youths 105) ______
  A)  show little change in cognitive skills.
  B)  show increased levels of emotional self-regulation.
  C)  typically feel that they can control outcomes in school performance and peer relations.
  D)  usually display a learned-helpless attributional style.

106)  Which teenager has a higher risk for depression? 106) ______
  A)  Kevin, an early maturing boy
  B)  Kailyn, a girl with an androgynous gender-role identity
  C)  Kendra, an early maturing girl
  D)  Kyra, a girl with a masculine gender-role identity

107)  The suicide rate 107) ______
  A)  is highest during childhood.
  B)  is lowest during old age.
  C)  has almost disappeared among teenagers due to intensive efforts by school counselors.
  D)  jumps sharply at adolescence.

108)  Which statement about adolescent suicide is correct? 108) ______
  A)  Girls' higher rate of depression leads to higher suicide rates than boys'.
  B)  Boys have a higher rate of suicide, and tend to use techniques that lead to instant death, such as firearms or hanging.
  C)  Most suicide attempts are really cries for help, which is why the majority of teenagers of both genders use methods from which they are more likely to be revived.
  D)  The suicide rate is similar for boys and girls, and lower in the United States and Canada than in Italy or Spain.

109)  Which group has the highest suicide rate among its teenagers? 109) ______
  A)  Caucasians
  B)  Hispanics
  C)  African Americans
  D)  Native Americans

110)  __________ are one of two types of young people who tend to commit suicide. 110) ______
  A)  Struggling students who are unable to keep up academically with their peers
  B)  High-SES risk takers
  C)  Highly intelligent adolescents who are unable to meet their own high standards
  D)  Students who lack athletic ability and are teased by the "jock" crowd

111)  Which of the following cognitive characteristics of adolescents contributes most directly to the sharp rise in suicide from childhood to adolescence? 111) ______
  A)  school environments
  B)  impulsiveness
  C)  personal fable
  D)  emotional distance from parents

112)  The author suggests one way in which legislators can take steps to prevent many teenage suicides is by passing laws to 112) ______
  A)  make it illegal to prescribe any medication that can be used for suicide to an adolescent.
  B)  require teachers to report any concerns about a potential suicide promptly to a suicide hotline.
  C)  institute mandatory hospitalization for any adolescent who discusses possible suicide.
  D)  restrict the availability of handguns and other firearms to adolescents.

113)  Which of the following consistently characterizes delinquent youths? 113) ______
  A)  low-warmth, high-conflict families
  B)  a tendency toward thrill-seeking
  C)  authoritarian child rearing
  D)  high social competence

114)  Police Chief Franks wants to assign more police officers to the streets during the hours when youth crime is most likely to occur. What time period should you recommend, based upon information in your text? 114) ______
  A)  weekday mornings, between 6:00 and 8:00 am, as students are walking to school
  B)  weekdays between 2:00 and 8:00 pm, when many teenagers are unsupervised
  C)  any time of the day or night, as there is no persistent pattern of youth crime
  D)  Friday and Saturday nights, when teenagers are most likely gathering in large groups

115)  The author says that the best way to combat delinquency in adolescence is through 115) ______
  A)  strict parental supervision throughout adolescence.
  B)  higher academic standards in the high schools.
  C)  prevention, beginning early in childhood.
  D)  police curfews to keep teens off the streets at night.

116)  As a child, David was negative, restless, and willful. By age 8, he was already engaging in petty theft. Jamal was a happy child who did well in school but began displaying antisocial behavior around age 13 and gradually moved to more severe delinquent acts. 116) ______
  A)  Jamal has very little chance of returning to his former state of behavior.
  B)  Research indicates that David will likely outgrow his delinquent behavior.
  C)  David is at higher risk for leading a life full of aggression and criminality.
  D)  Jamal is at a higher risk for leading a life full of aggression and criminality.

117)  Which of the following is a characteristic of early-onset delinquency? 117) ______
  A)  unusually strong abilities in language, memory, and cognitive self-regulation
  B)  unbreakable concentration and very long attention spans
  C)  emotionally negative and willful behavior as early as age 2
  D)  strong cognitive functioning

118)  The most effective parent strategies for preventing juvenile delinquency include 118) ______
  A)  instruction in behavior management and social skills.
  B)  training in time and money management, to reduce family stressors that teenagers try to avoid by joining gangs.
  C)  training in communication, monitoring, and discipline strategies.
  D)  training in drug and alcohol awareness and prevention.

119)  The most effective youth strategies for preventing juvenile delinquency include 119) ______
  A)  participation in community service projects.
  B)  neighborhood watches and other community organizations such as M.A.D.D.
  C)  cognitive, social, and emotional self-regulation skills for overcoming peer and school difficulties.
  D)  improving the quality of the local schools.

120)  Even multidimensional treatments aimed at preventing delinquency can fall short without 120) ______
  A)  authoritative parenting.
  B)  stricter punishments for first-time offenders.
  C)  federal funding to support new initiatives.
  D)  intensive effortsat the family, community, and cultural levelsto create nonaggressive environments.

ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.
121)  Discuss characteristics associated with teenagers with high and low self-esteem, and factors that influence each.  

122)  Discuss two actions that ethnic minority families can take to surmount the threat that discrimination poses to a favorable ethnic identity.  

123)  Explain the impact of extracurricular involvement on adolescent civic commitment.  

124)  Discuss the impact of religious beliefs on moral values and behavior.  

125)  Discuss the impact of the parent-child relationship on adolescent mental health.  

126)  Describe the differences between friendships among girls and friendships among boys.  

127)  Describe the functions that cliques and crowds serve, and explain the factors that cause the importance of crowds to decline over time.  

128)  Describe the challenges facing homosexual adolescents as they enter into dating relationships.  

129)  Describe behaviors characteristic of depression in adolescents, and differentiate between typical patterns of boys and girls.