Note that some readings are misnumbered on the reading list.  Be sure and use the titles(!) of readings to select chapters to be read, NOT the numbers!

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1)  In ________, the surname comes first and the given name last. 1) ______
  A)  Korean
  B)  Spanish
  C)  Chinese
  D)  Brazilian

2)  ________ grow up with the language of the nation that once colonized theirs plus half a dozen different tribal dialects. 2) ______
  A)  American Indians
  B)  Australians
  C)  Africans
  D)  Muslims

3)  According to Axtell, people surrounded by oceans rather than by other people end up 3) ______
  A)  isolated.
  B)  racist.
  C)  ethnocentric.
  D)  egotistical.

4)  In the Eastern hemisphere, where ________ frequently denotes social rank or family status, a mistake can be an outright insult. 4) ______
  A)  age
  B)  occupation
  C)  education
  D)  name

5)  In ________, which of a man's names takes a Mr. is determined by whether he is his father's first or second son. 5) ______
  A)  China
  B)  Vietnam
  C)  Korea
  D)  Japan

6)  ________ are forbidden within Muslim mosques and Buddhist temples. 6) ______
  A)  Denim pants
  B)  Shoes
  C)  Tee shirts
  D)  Business suits

ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.
7)  According to Axtell, the "Ugly American" about whom we used to read may be dead, but the ghost still wobbles out of the closet. Give examples of how the ghost of the "Ugly American" still appears from time to time.  

8)  List and discuss the four basic areas that cry out loudest for international understanding.  

9)  What does Axtell view as the best strategy for dealing with a host country's proudest culinary achievement which a foreign guest might find as most unappetizing?  

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
10)  Bernard points out that in the area of sexual relations, Kinsey and his associates found different responses in from one- to two-thirds of the couples they studied. Kinsey interpreted these differences in terms of 10) ______
  A)  individual mores.
  B)  definition.
  C)  values and norms.
  D)  selective perception.

11)  In a study of happily married, middle-class couples, ________ concluded that projection in terms of everyday needs was distorting even simple, everyday events, and lack of communication was permitting the distortions to continue. 11) ______
  A)  Alfred Kinsey
  B)  Granbois and Willett
  C)  Constantina Safilios-Rothschild
  D)  Harold Feldman

12)  In a laboratory-based study of married couples conducted by David Olson, a most interesting finding was that husbands perceived themselves as 12) ______
  A)  having as much power as their wives.
  B)  being equalitarian in their attitudes.
  C)  having more power than they actually did have in the laboratory "reality."
  D)  having less power than they actually did have in the laboratory "reality."

13)  According to Bernard, there is a/an ________ in marriage, that resides in the cultural prescriptions, proscriptions, and expectations that constitute marriage. 13) ______
  A)  objective reality
  B)  subjective perception
  C)  nonsensical organization
  D)  misnomer

14)  According to Bernard, in the West, the institutional structure of marriage has invested ________ with authority and backed it by the power of church and state. 14) ______
  A)  culture
  B)  society
  C)  the husband
  D)  the wedding

15)  According to Bernard, when women exert power, they are 15) ______
  A)  deviant.
  B)  not punished.
  C)  rewarded.
  D)  heroes.

ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.
16)  What does Bernard imply by her notion of "his" and "her" marriages? Give examples to support your answer.  

17)  What effect does the traditional inequality of men and women have on role playing in marriage?  

18)  Bernard indicates that growing sexual equality is having important effects on the institution of marriage. What are these effects? Give examples.  

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
19)  According to the authors, ________ percent of women in a recent poll said it is harder to be a mother now than it was twenty or thirty years ago. 19) ______
  A)  92
  B)  81
  C)  56
  D)  42

20)  In a recent poll, ________ percent of the women polled felt mothers were doing a worse job today than mothers from twenty or thirty years ago. 20) ______
  A)  92
  B)  81
  C)  56
  D)  42

21)  In their book, the authors call the insistence that no woman is truly complete or fulfilled unless she has kids the 21) ______
  A)  complete mother.
  B)  mommy track.
  C)  motherhood myth.
  D)  new momism.

22)  The notion that women should be subservient to men is not an accepted tenet of the 22) ______
  A)  new momism.
  B)  mommy track.
  C)  motherhood myth.
  D)  complete mother.

23)  The ________ of the 1980s, which insisted that even when you were off the job you should be working on something, absolutely conquered motherhood. 23) ______
  A)  new momism
  B)  mommy track
  C)  yuppie work ethic
  D)  free love movement

24)  The need to sculpt the carrots mothers put in the kids lunches, or build funhouses for them in the backyard, has been termed the 24) ______
  A)  June Cleaver Syndrome.
  B)  Martha Stewartization of America.
  C)  Motherhood Olympics.
  D)  McDonaldization of America.

ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.
25)  Discuss what the authors call the "new momism."  

26)  Explain how motherhood has become a "competition."  

27)  Discuss the different ways the media treats "dads" versus "moms" in their coverage.  

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
28)  Marriage by capture usually occurred in ________ societies. 28) ______
  A)  patriarchal
  B)  equalitarian
  C)  matriarchal
  D)  dictatorial

29)  It appears that the most common method of mate selection has been 29) ______
  A)  marriage by arrangement.
  B)  marriage by capture.
  C)  marriage by convenience.
  D)  free-choice.

30)  Throughout much of human history, marriage has been seen as 30) ______
  A)  a means to pass on property.
  B)  chiefly an economic transaction.
  C)  a way to propagate the species.
  D)  a necessary evil.

31)  The ________ appears to be an inducement for a man to marry a particular woman. 31) ______
  A)  matchmaker
  B)  sororate
  C)  dowry
  D)  levirate

32)  In cultures that practice ________, a sister replaces a deceased wife. 32) ______
  A)  sororate
  B)  levirate
  C)  matchmaking
  D)  brideprice

33)  The rule of ________ declares that a person must marry within his/her group. 33) ______
  A)  endogamy
  B)  endogenous
  C)  homogenous
  D)  homogeneity

ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.
34)  Stephens (1963) identifies four major reasons that determine mate choice in societies in which marriages are arranged. List and discuss these reasons.  

35)  Describe the difference between sororate and levirate. In what type of societies might we find these marriage practices?  

36)  Discuss the view that love gradually became the principal criterion for marriage in the Western world and its relationship to free-choice mate selection.  

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
37)  According to Ritzer the number of people employed in fast-food restaurants accounts for over ________ percent of the approximately 6 million people employed in restaurants of all types. 37) ______
  A)  20
  B)  40
  C)  60
  D)  80

38)  It is estimated that the first job for one of every ________ workers was at McDonald's. 38) ______
  A)  5
  B)  10
  C)  15
  D)  25

39)  Spokespeople for McDonaldized systems claim that 39) ______
  A)  McDonaldization is no different than any other low-skilled employment system.
  B)  they offer a large number of entry-level positions that give employees basic skills.
  C)  the jobs they provide have lowered the unemployment rates for the last ten years.
  D)  they fill a need for those looking for work.

40)  Institutions such as McDonald's Hamburger University are as much concerned with ________ as they are with the teaching of basic skills. 40) ______
  A)  routinization
  B)  scripting
  C)  maintaining the status quo
  D)  inculcating norms and values

41)  The difference between industrial and McDonaldized jobs is that McDonaldized jobs 41) ______
  A)  allow for creativity and personal growth.
  B)  are highly routinized in terms of what people say on the job.
  C)  are highly routinized in terms of what people do on the job.
  D)  are unscripted.

42)  In McDonaldized systems, the distinction between customer and employee is 42) ______
  A)  strengthened.
  B)  eroding.
  C)  separate.
  D)  unchanged.

ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.
43)  Describe the five dimensions which characterize McJobs.  

44)  The author indicates that McDonaldization and its various principles have become a part of a value system. Explain what the author means by that statement.  

45)  Explain how customers in McDonaldized systems have become a part of the labor process, performing a number of tasks without pay that were formerly performed by paid employees.  

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
46)  According to the authors, a third of Americans who are over the age of 50 have had ________ sexual partners in their lifetime. 46) ______
  A)  only one
  B)  three
  C)  five or more
  D)  at least ten, if not more

47)  A large majority of Americans spend much of their adulthood 47) ______
  A)  engaging in promiscuity.
  B)  as singles.
  C)  engaging in celibacy.
  D)  as part of a wedded couple.

48)  Men and women born in the decade 1933-1942 had sex at an average age of about 48) ______
  A)  fourteen.
  B)  eighteen.
  C)  twenty-one.
  D)  twenty-five.

49)  According to the authors, the proportion of women who were virgins when they turned twenty or had had sexual intercourse with only one person declined from 84 percent for women born in 1933 to 1942 to about ________ percent for women born after 1953. 49) ______
  A)  25
  B)  40
  C)  50
  D)  75

50)  The authors' study indicates a marked shift toward ________ rather than marriage as the first union of couples. 50) ______
  A)  living together
  B)  a multiple-couple living arrangement to share expenses
  C)  long engagements with each partner maintaining separate living quarters
  D)  The authors found no changes.

51)  Divorced people as a group have ________ sexual partners than people who remain married. 51) ______
  A)  the same number of
  B)  more
  C)  less
  D)  the same number but engage in sexual intercourse more frequently

ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.
52)  Discuss the profound changes in the sexual life course of Americans. How do these changes relate to the legacy of the 1960s and 1970s?  

53)  Explain how earlier first intercourse, later marriage, and more frequent divorce help to explain why people now have more sexual partners over their lifetimes.  

54)  Briefly summarize what the authors found in their study about the number of sexual partners Americans have over a lifetime.  

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
55)  Subtle sex discrimination is often not noticed because most people 55) ______
  A)  have internalized subtle sexist behavior as normal.
  B)  do not believe it to be manipulative.
  C)  believe that it does not exist.
  D)  have no idea what subtle sexist behavior is.

56)  ________ refers to superficially courteous behavior that is protective and paternalistic. 56) ______
  A)  Condescending chivalry
  B)  Radiant devaluation
  C)  Supportive discouragement
  D)  Friendly harassment

57)  ________ refers to a form of subtle sex discrimination where women receive mixed messages about their abilities, intelligence, or accomplishments. 57) ______
  A)  Considerate domination
  B)  Condescending chivalry
  C)  Radiant devaluation
  D)  Supportive discouragement

58)  ________ refers to sexually oriented behavior that, at face value, looks harmless or even playful. 58) ______
  A)  Subjective objectification
  B)  Friendly harassment
  C)  Liberated sexism
  D)  Radiant devaluation

59)  One of the best examples of ________ is work overloads both within the home and at the job site. 59) ______
  A)  radiant devaluation
  B)  liberated sexism
  C)  subjective objectification
  D)  supportive discouragement

60)  One of the most familiar forms of subtle sexism is ________, whereby women are made to feel invisible or unimportant through physical, social, or professional isolation. 60) ______
  A)  subjective objectification
  B)  collegial exclusion
  C)  supportive discouragement
  D)  considerate domination

ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.
61)  Discuss forms of supportive discouragement.  

62)  Discuss how shared parenting reflects more "rhetoric than reality."  

63)  What is considerate domination? List and discuss examples of this type of subtle sexual discrimination.  

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
64)  According to Mills, some men come to occupy positions in American society in which their decisions affect the everyday worlds of ordinary men and women. These powerful men do so as ________ become centralized. 64) ______
  A)  the means of information and the means of power
  B)  social classes
  C)  politics
  D)  the economy

65)  According to Mills, the ________ is/are composed of men whose positions enable them to transcend the ordinary environments of ordinary men and women; they are in positions to make decisions having major consequences. 65) ______
  A)  administrative hierarchy
  B)  upper crust
  C)  power elite
  D)  powers that be

66)  According to Mills, immediately below the elite are the ________ of the middle levels of power. 66) ______
  A)  economists
  B)  executive managers
  C)  attorneys
  D)  professional politicians

67)  According to Mills, no family is as directly powerful in national affairs as any 67) ______
  A)  politician.
  B)  major corporation.
  C)  executive manager.
  D)  military official.

68)  According to Mills, the economy once a great scatter of small productive units in autonomous balance has become dominated by 68) ______
  A)  attorneys.
  B)  two or three hundred giant corporations.
  C)  politicians.
  D)  managers.

69)  Within Mills's conception of the people of the higher circles, the elite feel themselves to be, and are felt by others to be, the inner circle of the 69) ______
  A)  upper social classes.
  B)  mucky mucks.
  C)  aristocracy.
  D)  nouveau riche.

ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.
70)  What are the three components of Mills's "interlocking triangle"? How does he envision these three institutions to be the most powerful in American society?  

71)  Discuss how the economy, political order, and military order have become enlarged administratively, and thus, have become centralized in terms of decision making.  

72)  Mills points out that the existence of a power elite is not a consequence of people per se, but as a result of the institutions of American society. What does he mean by this? Give examples to support your answer.  

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
73)  The size of the economy is usually measured by the 73) ______
  A)  national domestic product.
  B)  independent domestic product.
  C)  gross domestic product.
  D)  cost of living.

74)  An economic boom in ________ caused the GDP to grow rapidly, while government spending grew only moderately. 74) ______
  A)  the 1970s
  B)  the 1980s
  C)  the 1990s
  D)  early 2000

75)  ________ can impose significant costs on individuals and businesses and these costs are not shown in government budgets. 75) ______
  A)  Circuit Court interventions
  B)  Federal investigations
  C)  Supreme Court rulings
  D)  Regulatory activity

76)  In 2000, an estimated ________ was spent by all presidential and congressional candidates, Democratic and Republican. 76) ______
  A)  $3 million
  B)  $10 million
  C)  $1 billion
  D)  $3 billion

77)  According to the author, ________ is/are the single largest source of campaign money for the Democratic Party. 77) ______
  A)  private donations
  B)  union contributions
  C)  individual wealth
  D)  corporate donations

78)  According to the author, the average candidate for a U.S. Senate seat raised and spent over 78) ______
  A)  $3 million.
  B)  $5 million.
  C)  $1 billion.
  D)  $3 billion.

ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.
79)  Discuss the reasons for the growth of the government from the 1930s to the 1970s.  

80)  Explain what the author means by the statement that politics is becoming increasingly professionalized.  

81)  Dye asks the question "Who is running America?" Do you think he has answered that question? Why or why not?  

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
82)  According to Smith, any attempt to talk about women in Islam involves venturing into an area characterized by 82) ______
  A)  complex interactions.
  B)  fragmentation.
  C)  overgeneralization.
  D)  segmentation.

83)  According to Smith, the Holy Koran 83) ______
  A)  views men and women as being fundamentally unequal, religiously speaking.
  B)  forms the basis of prevailing family law in most areas of the Muslim world.
  C)  is considered to be the first in a series of divine revelations yet to be given.
  D)  is based on the word of God, but includes the wisdom of other contributors.

84)  In her article, Smith points out that 84) ______
  A)  polygamy is practiced by a clear majority of the contemporary Muslim population.
  B)  in Islam, marriage is a sacrament.
  C)  according to the Holy Koran, a man may take up to four wives.
  D)  according to the Holy Koran, a man must have only one wife.

85)  According to Smith's discussion of traditions in the Muslim world 85) ______
  A)  in accordance with Islamic law, when divorce takes place, custody of the children has traditionally gone to the mother.
  B)  traditionally, Muslim women have postponed marriage until their formal education is completed.
  C)  in the contemporary Islamic world, divorce rates vary considerably from one country to the next.
  D)  traditionally, Muslim women have been married in their late teens to early twenties.

86)  According to the Holy Koran 86) ______
  A)  the wives of the Prophet Muhammad should, for the sake of propriety, speak to other men only from behind a partition.
  B)  women are not permitted to inherit and own property.
  C)  women are compelled to wear face veils or masks.
  D)  all of the above

87)  According to Smith's discussion of life within the Islamic world 87) ______
  A)  the women of Islam have been totally without power.
  B)  the new Islamic woman is morally and religiously liberal.
  C)  education of women is seen as vital to the well being of Islam.
  D)  until fairly recently, education for women has been minimal.

ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.
88)  Discuss the various ways in which Islam grants men authority over women.  

89)  Uninformed observers view Islamic women as having no power whatsoever. Smith points out that Islam grants women power in specific formal and informal ways. Discuss these elements of power.  

90)  Using a Muslim perspective, discuss the problems inherent in the philosophy of Western feminism.  

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
91)  According to the author's study, while there were more dual earnings in the fourth quintile, average income only rose by ________ from 1976 to 1996. 91) ______
  A)  $325
  B)  $601
  C)  $873
  D)  $1,056

92)  The 1990 census reported that ________ the residents of New Hampshire, Florida, Wyoming, Nevada, Oregon, Arizona, Colorado, California, and Alaska had been born elsewhere. 92) ______
  A)  one-quarter of
  B)  less than one-half of
  C)  more than half
  D)  ninety percent of

93)  In 1995, a third of all youngsters lived in homes with incomes of less than 93) ______
  A)  $50,000.
  B)  $45,000.
  C)  $38,000.
  D)  $25,000.

94)  Of America's 70.3 million children aged eighteen or under, 31.3 percent are living with 94) ______
  A)  grandparents.
  B)  foster parents.
  C)  only one parent.
  D)  both parents.

95)  Despite its reputation as a high-wage economy, the midpoint pay for America's full-time workers in 1996 was 95) ______
  A)  $22,671.
  B)  $25,480.
  C)  $43,946.
  D)  $50,594.

96)  For most of the twentieth century, the United States has led the world in industrial production. The per capita figures for 1995 indicate that the United States has fallen to ________ place. 96) ______
  A)  sixth
  B)  tenth
  C)  thirteenth
  D)  twentieth

ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.
97)  Explain why John F. Kennedy's thesis that "a rising tide lifts all boats" has failed to be validated in recent decades.  

98)  Discuss the factors which help explain the increase in income between 1976 and 1996.  

99)  Discuss the "personal purchasing power" index. Why was it developed? How does it differ from the GDP?  

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
100)  In 1999, the gross national income in purchasing power parity in the United States was $31,910, while in Nigeria it was 100) ______
  A)  $770.
  B)  $1,200.
  C)  $3,000.
  D)  $13,453.

101)  According to Herbert Gans, one of the "uses" of poverty is to 101) ______
  A)  ensure that only the wealthy are in power.
  B)  ensure that goods and services are always available to the rich.
  C)  keep people of color in their place.
  D)  ensure that society's 'dirty work' will be done.

102)  In ________, the average hourly wage of apparel workers is about 23 cents. 102) ______
  A)  Japan
  B)  China
  C)  India
  D)  Mexico

103)  Women, who comprise about 80 percent of workers in Export Processing Zones, are often paid ________ male counterparts. 103) ______
  A)  the same as
  B)  20 to 50 percent more than
  C)  10 to 40 percent more than
  D)  20 to 50 percent less than

104)  The magnetic draw of a better life in economies that amply reward their human capital pulls the brightest minds from their countries of origin. This process is referred to as 104) ______
  A)  the high tech drain.
  B)  designer mind drain.
  C)  a brain drain.
  D)  the brain trust.

105)  Poor economies make optimal dumping grounds for goods that are dangerous, expired, or illegal. Russia might earn up to ________ from the importation of spent nuclear fuel from Japan, Germany, and South Korea. 105) ______
  A)  $210 million
  B)  $300 million
  C)  $21 million
  D)  $6 billion

ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.
106)  List and discuss Gan's 'uses' of poverty and the purposes they serve.  

107)  Briefly discuss the 11 uses of global poverty as suggested by the author.  

108)  Discuss how pharmaceutical companies benefit from the existence of global poverty. What has been the result of this neglect?  

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
109)  The median age of first grandparenthood has remained relatively constant over the past century at ________ years. 109) ______
  A)  60
  B)  55
  C)  45
  D)  40

110)  Farkas and Hogan (1994) found that ________ of people sixty-five years of age and older have a grandchild who is at least eighteen years old. 110) ______
  A)  one-tenth
  B)  one-quarter
  C)  one-third
  D)  more than half

111)  Fischer and Silverman (1982) and Wood (1982) refer to the grandparent role as 111) ______
  A)  creative and ever-changing.
  B)  clear and concise.
  C)  prescriptive.
  D)  tenuous or ambiguous.

112)  Census figures estimate the number of grandchildren living with their grandparents to be as high as 3.4 million, with African American children being ________ times more likely to be in this type of living arrangement. 112) ______
  A)  slightly more than three
  B)  four
  C)  five
  D)  slightly less than ten

113)  Grandparent-grandchild relationships are obviously influenced by 113) ______
  A)  how close in age the generations are to each other.
  B)  how close geographically the generations are to each other.
  C)  family wealth.
  D)  the educational level of the grandparents.

114)  The role of parent as "________" to grandchildren remains a critical factor in regulating grandparent contact. 114) ______
  A)  conciliator
  B)  goalkeeper
  C)  gatekeeper
  D)  facilitator

ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.
115)  Discuss the factors contributing to the changes in intergenerational family structure.  

116)  Cherlin and Furstenberg (1986) identified five types of grandparenting styles. What are these five styles? On what criteria did they base their classifications?  

117)  List and discuss the six dimensions of intergenerational solidarity. How does Silverstein, Lawton, and Bengtson's (1994) typology of adult parent-child relations correlate with these dimensions?  

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
118)  According to Butler, ________ is a convenient but imprecise indicator of physical, mental, and emotional status. 118) ______
  A)  chronological age
  B)  physiological condition
  C)  medical health
  D)  mental age

119)  The United States has often been described as a/an "________" culture. 119) ______
  A)  youth
  B)  elderly
  C)  adult
  D)  senior-centered

120)  "________" is a popularized layman's term used by doctors and the public alike to categorize the behavior of the old. 120) ______
  A)  Senility
  B)  Fiduciary incompetence
  C)  Mentally incompetent
  D)  Old coot

121)  ________ can be seen as a process of systematic stereotyping of and discrimination against people because they are old. 121) ______
  A)  Aging dysfunction
  B)  Epithet casting
  C)  Ageism
  D)  Age-based stereotyping

122)  Which of the following is NOT one of the myths and stereotypes about the old, as mentioned in Reading 48? 122) ______
  A)  the myth of disengagement
  B)  the myth of wisdom
  C)  the myth of "aging"
  D)  the myth of inflexibility

123)  According to Butler, the myth of ________ portrays old age as a kind of adult fairyland. 123) ______
  A)  senility
  B)  serenity
  C)  non-productivity
  D)  disengagement

ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.
124)  List and discuss the myths and stereotypes of old age that are presented by Butler.  

125)  List and discuss the "themes" that shape popular views of old age in our society. Give examples of these themes based upon the mass media today.  

126)  Discuss how the elderly themselves often reinforce "ageism."  

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
127)  In most nations 127) ______
  A)  fertility rates have declined, while infant and maternal mortality rates have risen.
  B)  fertility rates and infant and maternal mortality rates have declined.
  C)  fertility rates and infant and maternal mortality rates have risen.
  D)  fertility rates have risen, while infant and maternal mortality rates have declined.

128)  According to the authors, the annual growth rate for the elderly was ________ percent in 1993-1994. 128) ______
  A)  1.6
  B)  1.9
  C)  2.3
  D)  2.8

129)  ________ percent of the world's elderly population lived in developing nations in 1994. 129) ______
  A)  Twenty-five
  B)  Forty-two
  C)  Fifty-five
  D)  Seventy-five

130)  Among countries with a population of more than 1 million, Sweden has the highest portion of people aged ________, with 18 percent in 1994. 130) ______
  A)  sixty
  B)  sixty-five
  C)  seventy-five
  D)  eighty

131)  For many nations, the ________ age group will be the fastest growing portion of the elderly population. 131) ______
  A)  eighty and over
  B)  sixty-five
  C)  sixty-two
  D)  fifty-five

132)  In many developing countries, the population eighty and over in 2020 is likely to at least ________ from 1994. 132) ______
  A)  double
  B)  triple
  C)  quadruple
  D)  remain stable

ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.
133)  Discuss the reasons for the growth in the elderly population worldwide. Is this growth expected to continue?  

134)  Japan's population eighty years and over is projected to grow very rapidly. Discuss what steps the Japanese have taken to prepare for this growth.  

135)  Discuss the implications the rapid growth of the oldest old will have on individuals, families and governments throughout the world.