Exam

Name___________________________________

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 
1)  In Erikson's theory of development, ego integrity versus despair involves 1) ______
  A)  coming to terms with one's life.
  B)  preparing for death.
  C)  a final attempt to reconcile any unhappinesses in one's life.
  D)  heavy depression and disability for most adults.

2)  Mr. Solimani reached the last years of his life feeling whole, complete, and satisfied with his achievements. While he made some decisions in his life that didn't turn out as expected, he acknowledges that the path he eventually followed was necessary for fashioning his life course. Mr. Solimani has achieved 2) ______
  A)  a sense of disengagement.
  B)  a sense of integrity.
  C)  tolerance.
  D)  finality.

3)  Nate, Tess, Leo, and Ian are all in their eighties. Nate arrives at this stage of life feeling whole, complete, and satisfied with his achievements. Tess regrets several major decisions in her life. Leo remains bitter and angry over some lost movie deals that he feels would have made his retirement worry-free, and expresses a great deal of anger and contempt for those in the movie business. Ian does not generally remember what happens from one week to the next, and depends heavily on his friendships with Nate, Tess, and Leo. According to Erikson's theory, who has arrived at a sense of ego integrity? 3) ______
  A)  Tess
  B)  Ian
  C)  Leo
  D)  Nate

4)  Nate, Tess, Leo, and Ian are all in their 80s. Nate arrives at this stage of life feeling whole, complete, and satisfied with his achievements. Tess regrets several major decisions in her life, but generally feels that her life turned out positively. Leo remains bitter and angry over some lost movie deals that he feels would have made his retirement worry-free, and expresses a great deal of anger and contempt for those in the movie business. Ian does not generally remember what happens from one week to the next, and depends heavily on his friendships with Nate, Tess, and Leo. According to Erikson's theory, who displays symptoms of despair? 4) ______
  A)  Ian
  B)  Leo
  C)  Nate
  D)  Tess

5)  Which characteristic is associated with greater psychosocial maturity, measured in terms of striving for generativity and ego integrity in everyday behavior? 5) ______
  A)  SES
  B)  marital status
  C)  age
  D)  gender

6)  70-year-old Jim expresses a great deal of anger and contempt for other people. According to Erikson, his behavior disguises a sense of 6) ______
  A)  doubt.
  B)  shame.
  C)  self-contempt.
  D)  mistrust.

7)  Janelle, who recently retired from a high-level managerial job, has no interest in anything outside of her former work and feels that she is worthless. According to Peck, Janelle needs to work on the task of 7) ______
  A)  ego differentiation.
  B)  ego transcendence.
  C)  body transcendence.
  D)  vocational denial.

8)  Chad, just turned 65, feels anxious about wrinkles, flab, and gray hair. He tries cosmetics and surgery to keep his youthful looks, but his lack of success makes him depressed. According to Peck, Chad needs to work on 8) ______
  A)  ego transcendence.
  B)  body transcendence.
  C)  ego differentiation.
  D)  physiological denial.

9)  Yin-sing, at age 80, can't face the idea that she will die and the world will go on. She has children and grandchildren, but is not interested in their lives or fortunes. According to Peck, Yin-sing needs to work on 9) ______
  A)  body transcendence.
  B)  ego differentiation.
  C)  ego transcendence.
  D)  future differentiation.

10)  Mrs. Balaguer states that she has accepted the changes brought about by aging, is not afraid of dying, has a clearer sense of the meaning of life, and has found new, positive spiritual gifts to explore. Mrs. Balaguer is probably 10) ______
  A)  in her eighties or nineties.
  B)  experiencing terminal decline.
  C)  very ill.
  D)  just recovering from a near-death experience.

11)  Mr. Jeyakumar exhibits a heightened inner calm and contentment, and spends a lot of time in quiet reflection. According to Joan Erikson, Mr. Jeyakumar is displaying characteristics of 11) ______
  A)  disengagement.
  B)  continuity.
  C)  gerotranscendence.
  D)  reminiscence.

12)  Mrs. Handerhan has arthritis. She has also lost two close friends who died within a month of each other. In spite of this, she sustains a sense of optimism and good psychological well-being, dampening her negative emotions and maximizing her positive feelings. Mrs. Handerhan 12) ______
  A)  is exhibiting affect optimization.
  B)  was probably raised by authoritarian parents.
  C)  is displaying socioemotional selectivity.
  D)  probably has Alzheimer's.

13)  Elderly Mr. Herrera is asked to describe how he felt during his first battle as a soldier during World War II. According to Labouvie-Veif's theory of emotional expertise, he is likely to describe his emotions 13) ______
  A)  with vivid descriptions that integrate both subjective and objective aspects.
  B)  very technically, with excessive extraneous detail about things like the types of guns and ammunition used.
  C)  in a detached state, as if he were observing them from the outside as a news reporter.
  D)  by emphasizing how he should have felt rather than how he did feel.

14)  When confronted with a difficult situation, 83-year-old Mr. Lawrencenko makes sure he understands his own feelings before deciding on a course of action. According to Labouvie-Vief, in a negatively charged situation, Mr. Lawrencenko is likely to 14) ______
  A)  try and understand the perspectives of any other involved parties.
  B)  find a way to end the situation as quickly as possible, even if it requires a less-effective outcome.
  C)  use emotion-centered coping strategies.
  D)  use humor to diffuse the situation.

15)  Mrs. Mayor sits with her grandchildren and tells them stories about her childhood, and her thoughts and feelings about those memories. Mrs. Mayor is engaged in 15) ______
  A)  gerotranscendence.
  B)  affect optimization.
  C)  life review.
  D)  reminiscence.

16)  Which of the following statements is true? 16) ______
  A)  Reminiscing occurs because elders have nothing else to do.
  B)  Research shows that engaging in reminiscence can be positive and adaptive for elders.
  C)  The widespread image of a reminiscing elder is one of the less common positive stereotypes of aging.
  D)  Brain scan results indicate that engaging in reminiscence triggers activity in normally dormant areas in elders' brains.

17)  Mr. Naisby is recalling many of the past experiences of his life. He reflects on these experiences and contemplates their meaning in an attempt to understand himself better. Mr. Naisby is engaged in 17) ______
  A)  recall.
  B)  recognition.
  C)  life review.
  D)  retrospection.

18)  A group of children were sent out of Sudan by their families in an attempt to save them from the violence occurring there. Based on the experiences of the children who were World War II evacuees and refugees, we can expect that the adolescents in the group will fare best in which setting? 18) ______
  A)  orphanages
  B)  boarding schools
  C)  foster homes
  D)  independent living situations

19)  Findings from the study of World War II refugees would suggest that 19) ______
  A)  children displaced from war will usually return to live in their home country when they become adults.
  B)  most refugees and evacuees were maladjusted.
  C)  most victims can make a complete recovery, when placed in a caring, supportive environment.
  D)  the pain of childhood loss and trauma can intensify in later life.

20)  Mrs. Kameenui typically engages in reminiscence when she is bored. During these times, she focuses on bitter events and painful content from her past. She is engaged in __________ reminiscence and probably __________. 20) ______
  A)  other-focused; will move through this phase into knowledge-based reminiscence
  B)  knowledge-based; has a rich and rewarding life
  C)  self-focused; has adjustment problems
  D)  self-focused; has reached ego integrity

21)  Mr. Schwertman spends time reminiscing about his life when his now-grown children were very young. As a result, he works to maintain and solidify his relationship with them as adults. Mr. Schwertman is engaging in __________ reminiscence. 21) ______
  A)  self-focused
  B)  knowledge-based
  C)  life review
  D)  other-focused

22)  Mrs. Raymer-King is drawing on her past experiences to help her solve a current problem. She also uses her past experiences to teach and mentor the young people in her church. Mrs. Raymer-King is using __________ reminiscence. 22) ______
  A)  knowledge-based
  B)  life review
  C)  other-focused
  D)  self-focused

23)  Mrs. Raymer-King is drawing on her past experiences to help her solve a current problem. She also uses her past experiences to teach and mentor the young people in her church. Based on this information, you can infer that Mrs. Raymer-King probably 23) ______
  A)  has adjustment problems.
  B)  scores high in openness to experience.
  C)  has achieved gerotranscendence.
  D)  has a happy, stable marriage.

24)  Which person is LEAST likely to engage in reminiscence to teach others about the past? 24) ______
  A)  Mr. Jones, a Caucasian elder
  B)  Mr. Howard, an African-American elder
  C)  Mrs. Powers, an African-American elder
  D)  Mr. Li, a Chinese elder

25)  Which elder is most likely to engage in reminiscence? 25) ______
  A)  Mrs. Au, who continues to work as an elementary teacher at the age of 75
  B)  Mrs. Ayres, who is recently widowed
  C)  Mrs. Alvarez, who has lived in the same home for 50 years
  D)  Mrs. Acorn, who was widowed five years ago

26)  In old age, a person's self-concept tends to become 26) ______
  A)  more focused on relationships with others.
  B)  more secure and complex.
  C)  more idealistic and less realistic.
  D)  vaguer and more tentative.

27)  A key feature of integrity is 27) ______
  A)  self-acceptance.
  B)  self-consciousness.
  C)  self-awareness.
  D)  self-esteem.

28)  Mr. Vickers is an senior who has several possible selves. As he continues to age, which of the following will likely occur? 28) ______
  A)  He will delete some possible selves and replace them with new ones.
  B)  He will find humor in the list of possible selves he once had for himself.
  C)  He will become saddened by the possible selves that will never come to be.
  D)  He will eliminate any possible selves that he views as impossible to achieve.

29)  In long-term studies of personality traits, elders who seemed to have come to terms with life despite its imperfections showed an increase in 29) ______
  A)  neuroticism.
  B)  agreeableness.
  C)  extroversion.
  D)  conscientiousness.

30)  As Mrs. Kaneda gets older, her sociability dips slightly.Which of the following statements about this change is correct? 30) ______
  A)  Most seniors experience a large drop in sociability, so Mrs. Kaneda's slight dip indicates a higher-than-average level of extroversion.
  B)  Mrs. Kaneda has probably been moved into a nursing home recently.
  C)  This slight dip is possibly due to narrowed social opportunities as family members and friends die.
  D)  This slight dip in sociability is atypical for seniors, signaling the possibility of terminal decline.

31)  Studies of life satisfaction throughout adulthood find that many elderly adults report they are unhappy about 31) ______
  A)  their financial situation.
  B)  their physical health.
  C)  their adult children.
  D)  nothing at all.

32)  A group of British elders has become less religious as they age. If their feelings are consistent with research findings cited in your text, one reason for this change is 32) ______
  A)  disappointment at the support they received from their religious institution during stressful times.
  B)  a loss of fear of death and dying.
  C)  a rise in spirituality, which subsequently makes them realize the human-imposed limits of religion.
  D)  an acceptance of the growing materialism of the world.

33)  Because Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King Jr. stood up against persecution and injustice in order to promote their visions of an all-inclusive human community, they had attained which of Fowler's stages of faith development? 33) ______
  A)  synthetic-conventional
  B)  conjunctive
  C)  intuitive-projective
  D)  individuative-reflective

34)  Mr. Rattanopos has begun critically reflecting on his beliefs and values, which he realizes are only one of many possible world views. He also ponders the various religious rituals in his life. For example, when taking communion, he holds the cup and then asks, "What does this really mean?" Mr. Rattanopos is in which of Fowler's stages of faith development? 34) ______
  A)  synthetic-conventional
  B)  individuative-reflective
  C)  conjunctive
  D)  intuitive-projective

35)  Sixteen-year-old Antonia has a deeply felt set of religious beliefs and values. Although her faith provides a basis for her identity, she has not ever examined her beliefs systematically. She is in which of Fowler's stages of faith development? 35) ______
  A)  intuitive-projective
  B)  synthetic-conventional
  C)  individuative-reflective
  D)  conjunctive

36)  Which of the following people is LEAST likely to be involved in both organized and informal religious activities? 36) ______
  A)  Mr. H, a Hispanic male
  B)  Mr. C, a Caucasian male
  C)  Mrs. N, a Native-American female
  D)  Mrs. A, an African-American female

37)  Which of the following people is MOST likely to report a collaboration with God to overcome life problems? 37) ______
  A)  Mrs. A, an African-American female
  B)  Mrs. N, an Asian-American female
  C)  Mr. H, a Hispanic male
  D)  Mr. C, a Caucasian male

38)  Women are more likely to engage in religious activities than men due to 38) ______
  A)  a greater sense of responsibility to God.
  B)  higher SES levels.
  C)  lower incidence of widowhood.
  D)  higher levels of stress associated with poverty, widowhood, and caregiving.

39)  May stops by her mother June's house twice a day to check on her. If June is having trouble getting dressed or making the bed, then May helps her and the two women chat while they work. However, if June has no trouble with tasks like making coffee or unloading the dishwasher, then May withdraws and attends to other jobs. May's behavior toward June during dressing and bed-making can be referred to as the 39) ______
  A)  independence-ignore script.
  B)  co-dependency-support script.
  C)  dependency-support script.
  D)  assisted independence script.

40)  May stops by her mother June's house twice a day to check on her. If June is having trouble getting dressed or making the bed, then May helps her and the two women chat while they work. However, if June has no trouble with tasks like making coffee or unloading the dishwasher, then May withdraws and attends to other jobs. May's behavior toward June as she makes coffee or unloads the dishwasher can be referred to as the 40) ______
  A)  independence-ignore script.
  B)  dependency-support script.
  C)  assisted independence script.
  D)  co-dependency-support script.

41)  May stops by her mother June's house twice a day to check on her. If June is having trouble getting dressed or making the bed, then May helps her and the two women chat while they work. However, if June has no trouble with tasks like making coffee or unloading the dishwasher, then May withdraws and attends to other jobs. June's satisfaction with her support relationship with May is probably due to the fact that 41) ______
  A)  the support is not perceived as demeaning or unpleasant.
  B)  May is able to see her twice a day.
  C)  her daughter, rather than hired help, provides the support.
  D)  she really doesn't need May's help.

42)  A classmate of yours is worried about his grandmother. She recently stated that when she could no longer care for herself, it would be time to die. Your classmate wonders if he should encourage her to be as independent as possible. Based on information in your text, you should tell him 42) ______
  A)  forcing independence will only result in stubborn resistance and increased passivity and incompetence on her part.
  B)  that he should definitely stop helping her with daily activities in order to prolong her life.
  C)  some dependency is adaptive if it permits elders to conserve their strength for more highly valued activities.
  D)  if she really feels that her life is over, her rights should be respected and she should be allowed to die when she is ready.

43)  Mrs. Cantagallo is suffering from rheumatoid arthritis which has resulted in significant physical declines. According to your text, Mrs. Cantagallo 43) ______
  A)  be a good candidate for newly developed arthroscopic procedures for rheumatoid arthritis sufferers.
  B)  may develop a sense of loss of personal control, putting her at risk for depression.
  C)  can avoid feelings of hopelessness as long as she remains socially isolated from others who may treat her as an invalid.
  D)  will probably not be moved to a nursing home as long as she maintains a positive outlook on life.

44)  One of the strongest risk factors for depression in late adulthood is 44) ______
  A)  financial problems.
  B)  widowhood.
  C)  poor sleep patterns.
  D)  physical illness.

45)  Negative life events evoke __________ in older adults than in younger individuals. 45) ______
  A)  less stress and depression
  B)  more excitement at the prospect of facing a challenge
  C)  more stress and depression
  D)  more emotional reactions

46)  Mrs. O'Malley is 85 years old and reports that her social relations are often a source of stress. For many elderly women like Mrs. O'Malley, this is because 46) ______
  A)  busy lifestyles cause visits with family and friends to be rushed, making the elder feel like "an afterthought."
  B)  others depend on them for emotional support, which can be draining.
  C)  squabbles intensify as family members sense the impending death of the elder and try to settle estate affairs.
  D)  younger family members often create friction by falling into the dependency-support script.

47)  Why do adult children typically express a deeper sense of obligation toward their aging parents than the parents expect from them? 47) ______
  A)  Their realization of their own physical frailties and approaching age during the middle adult years makes them more empathic towards their parents' personal situations.
  B)  The dependency-support script is too difficult to revise.
  C)  Many adult children underestimate the feelings of their parents.
  D)  Many older adults don't want a great deal of support unless they can reciprocate.

48)  __________ is a self-destructive act that is common among elders who commit suicide. 48) ______
  A)  Asking other people to cause your own death
  B)  Turning on the gas in a house with closed windows
  C)  Taking large doses of prescription medications
  D)  Refusing food or necessary medical treatments

49)  The two types of events that prompt suicide in late life are 49) ______
  A)  loss of independence and recent widowhood.
  B)  institutionalization (only if they are terminally ill) and widowhood.
  C)  institutionalization (particularly if they are still fairly independent) and terminal illness.
  D)  losses (such as retirement and widowhood) and chronic and terminal illness.

50)  Elder suicide has declined during the past 50 years due in part to 50) ______
  A)  improved medical care and social services.
  B)  increased prevention efforts sponsored by the AARP.
  C)  increased cohabitation among older adults.
  D)  more negative cultural attitudes towards suicide.

51)  Ethnic minority elders are more likely to accept social support and assistance from church congregation members because 51) ______
  A)  they do not want to appear ungrateful and subsequently embarrass family members.
  B)  they feel it is motivated by a desire for a more positive afterlife.
  C)  they feel it is motivated by a sense of obligation.
  D)  the warm atmosphere of religious organizations fosters a sense of social acceptance and belonging.

52)  Which of the following is related to high morale in old age? 52) ______
  A)  having an extroverted personality
  B)  a strong dependency-support script
  C)  being an ethnic minority
  D)  strong religious faith

53)  In order for social support to foster well-being, 53) ______
  A)  friends and family should follow the dependency-support script.
  B)  friends and family must provide the support in as unobtrusive manner as possible.
  C)  elders need to request it, rather than having it offered.
  D)  elders need to assume personal control of it.

54)  Mrs. Himmel is a senior with limited mobility. Which of the following is more likely to be associated with her positive outlook on life? 54) ______
  A)  the amount of help family and friends provide
  B)  the quality of the help that family and friends provide
  C)  her family's perceptions of Mrs. Himmel's independence
  D)  her perceived social support from friends and family

55)  One theory about why elders interact less with others than younger adults do says that they deliberately withdraw from society as they become more preoccupied with their inner lives in anticipation of death. This is called 55) ______
  A)  disengagement theory.
  B)  mutuality theory.
  C)  socioemotional selectivity theory.
  D)  activity theory.

56)  In contrast to implications of the disengagement theory, elders actually 56) ______
  A)  maintain the same number of social contacts as they had during their young adulthood.
  B)  disengage from unsatisfying contacts but maintain satisfying ones.
  C)  increase the number of social contacts over the years.
  D)  disengage from social contacts more than researchers predict.

57)  According to __________, when society arranges conditions that permit elders to remain engaged in roles and relationships, life satisfaction is improved and social interactions increase. 57) ______
  A)  socioemotional selectivity theory
  B)  disengagement theory
  C)  mutuality theory
  D)  activity theory

58)  Which of the following is a flaw of activity theory? 58) ______
  A)  The theory acknowledges psychological changes in old age, yet no such changes occur.
  B)  Research has shown that merely offering opportunities for social contact does not lead to actual greater social activity.
  C)  Elders who have larger social networks are happier.
  D)  The theory is based upon the disengagement theory, which is itself flawed.

59)  Mr. and Mrs. Hobdy-Bingham, both retired history teachers, spend a lot of their time tutoring in a low-income community center. They enjoy weekend trips to historical points of interest in their state and frequently get together with former colleagues. The Hobdy-Binghams' activities are consistent with 59) ______
  A)  socioemotional selectivity theory.
  B)  activity theory.
  C)  continuity theory.
  D)  disengagement theory.

60)  As Mr. and Mrs. Awai aged, they tended to reduce contacts with acquaintances. Instead, they became more deeply involved in a smaller number of relationships with their closest friends. Their behavior is consistent with the 60) ______
  A)  activity theory.
  B)  socioemotional selectivity theory.
  C)  disengagement theory.
  D)  mutuality theory.

61)  Although the social networks of older adults are __________, they report being __________ than younger adults with their current number of friends. 61) ______
  A)  smaller; happier
  B)  larger; more dissatisfied
  C)  smaller; more dissatisfied
  D)  larger; happier

62)  Based on the socioemotional selectivity theory, which 26-year-old person is most likely to focus on the emotional quality of social experiences? 62) ______
  A)  Diedre, a quadriplegic
  B)  Danielle, who has AIDS
  C)  David, who has recently divorced
  D)  Denise, who is in good health

63)  __________ have better accessibility to transportation and social services, while __________ are the most disadvantaged in terms of health, income, and service availability. 63) ______
  A)  Inner-city elders; elders who live in in the suburbs
  B)  Inner-city elders; elders who live in small towns and rural areas
  C)  Elders who reside in the suburbs; inner-city elders
  D)  Elders who live in small towns and rural areas; inner-city elders

64)  Melanie is an elder who has lived in her community for 30 years. Which factor will have the most impact on her life satisfaction? 64) ______
  A)  the number of other older adults residing in her neighborhood
  B)  the population density of the neighborhood (inner city versus rural)
  C)  the distance between her neighborhood and her children's homes
  D)  the ease of access to social services

65)  According to socioemotional selectivity theory, which factor most influences our choice of social partners? 65) ______
  A)  perception of available time
  B)  gender
  C)  familiarity
  D)  openness to change

66)  The preference of elders for a few close partners over a wide array of friends stems from 66) ______
  A)  insecurities about making new social contacts after older friends and family members die.
  B)  increased desire for emotionally meaningful interactions.
  C)  the worry that others will view them through an age-stereotyped lens.
  D)  a need for social support during difficult times.

67)  Which of the following is the primary reason that elders residing in small and mid-sized communities are more satisfied with life? 67) ______
  A)  children tend to live closer
  B)  higher participation in local government
  C)  more opportunities for interaction with others of the same ethnic background
  D)  lower crime rates

68)  Which statement about crime against the elderly is accurate? 68) ______
  A)  For older adults, fear of crime is not as great a concern compared to worries about income, health, or housing.
  B)  Older adults are more often victims of violent crime than other age groups.
  C)  In urban areas, purse snatching and pick-pocketing are more often committed against elders than younger people.
  D)  Violent crime against the elderly is common and probably underreported.

69)  How does fear of crime affect the lives of older adults? 69) ______
  A)  restricts activity and undermines morale
  B)  causes them to act aggressively toward people on the street
  C)  creates large migrations of older adults from inner cities to the suburbs
  D)  causes stress-induced health problems

70)  What percentage of older adults in Western industrialized nations remain in or near the home where they spent the majority of their adult lives? 70) ______
  A)  75 percent
  B)  5 percent
  C)  45 percent
  D)  90 percent

71)  The primary reason why more elders in the United States live on their own today than ever before is 71) ______
  A)  the high cost of nursing homes.
  B)  lack of assistance from their children.
  C)  improved health and finances.
  D)  decreasing governmental support.

72)  Although increasing numbers of ethnic minority elders want to live on their own, __________ often prevent(s) them from doing so. 72) ______
  A)  cultural values
  B)  pride
  C)  poverty
  D)  their children

73)  Assuming that they are representative of national samples, which elder(s) is/are most at risk for living in poverty? 73) ______
  A)  Mr. Summar, who lives with his adult daughter and her family
  B)  Mr. and Mrs. Pipkin, who live together
  C)  Mrs. Lavigne, a widow who lives alone
  D)  Mr. Baarda, a male who lives alone

74)  Mrs. Sullaivani resides in a long-term care facility that provides a variety of support services, such as meals in a common dining room. Because she has mobility issues, the staff keep a particularly watchful oversight of her. Mrs. Sullaivani lives in 74) ______
  A)  a life care community.
  B)  a nursing home.
  C)  congregate housing.
  D)  a retirement village.

75)  Mr. and Mrs. Ramirez live independently in a residential community, where they made a large initial payment and continue to pay monthly fees. As they age and their needs change, they can move into congregate housing or a nursing home within the same community. Mr. and Mrs. Ramirez live in 75) ______
  A)  a life care community.
  B)  a nursing home.
  C)  a retirement village.
  D)  congregate housing.

76)  Living in an age-segregated community, surrounded by other elders, tends to be beneficial to elders who live in a society in which 76) ______
  A)  old age leads to increased status.
  B)  old age leads to greater physical decline.
  C)  old age leads to special social roles.
  D)  old age leads to reduced status.

77)  An elder's autonomy is restricted most sharply if he or she is living in 77) ______
  A)  an adult child's home.
  B)  a nursing home.
  C)  congregate housing.
  D)  his or her own home.

78)  One reason social contact is so low in nursing homes is that 78) ______
  A)  the institution doesn't get involved in social contact.
  B)  there are not very many available social partners.
  C)  residents don't have control over their contacts.
  D)  attendants do not provide enough assistance.

79)  The __________ is a model of age-related changes in social networks, which views the individual within a cluster of relationships moving through life. Close ties are in the inner circle, less-close ties on the outside. With age, places are exchanged, new ones are added, and some are lost entirely. 79) ______
  A)  social clock
  B)  personal entourage
  C)  social convoy
  D)  lifelong peer group

80)  When marital satisfaction is measured throughout adulthood, the pattern found is that 80) ______
  A)  satisfaction drops slowly throughout adulthood.
  B)  satisfaction peaks in middle adulthood, then falls.
  C)  satisfaction rises from middle to late adulthood.
  D)  it is lowest in middle adulthood, highest in young adulthood.

81)  The increase in marital satisfaction in late adulthood is due in part to 81) ______
  A)  the transition from the role of the provider to recipient of caretaking.
  B)  engagement in more individual leisure activities.
  C)  greater financial security.
  D)  increased perceptions of fairness as men contribute more to household tasks.

82)  Which statement about late-life marital discord is correct? 82) ______
  A)  Little is known about late-life marital dissatisfaction, as elderly couples are often unwilling to expend the energy to discuss negative aspects of their relationship.
  B)  Women often protect themselves from the energy drain of a troubling relationship by avoiding discussion.
  C)  When marital dissatisfaction exists, it often takes a greater toll on women than on men.
  D)  Men tend to expend more energy trying to work on a troubled relationship.

83)  Gays and lesbians less often assume that family members will provide support for them in old age, 83) ______
  A)  knowing that their same-sex relationship greatly reduces their chances of being widowed and alone for long periods of time.
  B)  because of imagined or real strain in family relationships when they told others about their homosexuality.
  C)  due to lifelong experiences of rejection and insensitivity, which cause them to be much more independent than the average elder.
  D)  as they are often childless and so have nobody upon whom they can depend.

84)  When asked about the reasons for divorce, elderly men typically mention 84) ______
  A)  stress resulting from sexual dysfunction.
  B)  lack of shared interests and activities.
  C)  emotional distancing.
  D)  their partner's refusal to communicate.

85)  Which reason explains why elders have more difficulty dealing with divorce than younger adults? 85) ______
  A)  Relationships with others stay the same at a time when redefining identity is crucial.
  B)  It is harder to separate one's identity from that of the former spouse due to a relationship that has lasted their entire adult life.
  C)  Financial consequences are severe due to the loss of assets in property settlements.
  D)  The stigma of divorce is much harder to bear for those raised in earlier generations.

86)  Saba, age 62, and Victor, age 68, have just gotten married. If their relationship is typical of late-life remarriages, what can we anticipate? 86) ______
  A)  Their successful marriage will involve more maturity, patience, and a balance of practical and romantic concerns.
  B)  The marriage will last only a few years, as elders who marry late in life tend to have shorter lifespans.
  C)  They will have a conflict-ridden marriage, as both have decades of habits and ways of doing things to which they are accustomed and are not necessarily willing to compromise on or relinquish.
  D)  Their relationship will be happy, but they will experience stressful relationships with their children.

87)  Louetta and Stuart are elders who cohabit but do not plan to marry. Your text indicates that __________ probably contributed to their decision. 87) ______
  A)  a more modern view on sexual morality
  B)  concerns about financial consequences with respect to taxes, social security, or pension benefits
  C)  feelings of betraying former spouses who died
  D)  Stuart's unwillingness to give up his new-found independence

88)  Elder __________ with high rates of poverty and chronic disease are more likely to be widowed. 88) ______
  A)  ethnic minorities
  B)  men
  C)  women
  D)  caucasians

89)  Which factor contributes to resilience after widowhood? 89) ______
  A)  having children upon whom they can draw support
  B)  continued social relationships that were important before the spouse's death
  C)  a weak sense of self-efficacy in handling tasks of daily living
  D)  having an introverted personality

90)  Men have a more difficult time adjusting to widowhood than women do because 90) ______
  A)  they have financial worries due to the loss of the wife's job or estate.
  B)  men have large numbers of emotionally satisfying ties outside of marriage.
  C)  they are resentful about performing essential household tasks that were handled by their deceased wives.
  D)  men tend to rely on their wives for social connectedness, household tasks, and coping with stress.

91)  One possible reason that elderly women feel less need to remarry is that 91) ______
  A)  they are often well-off financially due to estate and inheritances, and worry about ulterior motives of potential suitors.
  B)  they relish the time alone after a lifetime of carrying the emotional weight of the marriage.
  C)  their kinkeeper role and ability to form close friendships allows them to maintain satisfying relationships.
  D)  there are more widowed men than widowed women.

92)  A friend's elderly uncle has just died, and he wonders how best to support his aunt during this stressful time. Based on information in your text, what would you recommend? 92) ______
  A)  Let her know that he is there for her whenever she needs him.
  B)  Provide social support and interaction beyond the grieving period, while helping her use coping strategies.
  C)  Take care of as many of her responsibilities as possible, while not pushing her into independence too quickly.
  D)  Allow her some "emotional space" during the grieving period, and then provide support when she requests it.

93)  Most elders who never married or had children report that 93) ______
  A)  they have developed other meaningful relationships.
  B)  their overall life satisfaction is lower than married elders'.
  C)  they feel alone and isolated from other people.
  D)  their closest ties are to people of the other sex.

94)  Compared with divorced or recently widowed elders, the overall level of life satisfaction felt by elderly women who have never married is 94) ______
  A)  somewhat higher.
  B)  somewhat lower.
  C)  about the same.
  D)  much lower.

95)  Regardless of the sex of the elder being interviewed, older adults perceive 95) ______
  A)  bonds with sisters to be closer than bonds with brothers.
  B)  bonds with brothers to be closer than bonds with sisters.
  C)  bonds with sisters to be more difficult than bonds with brothers.
  D)  sibling bonds to be stronger than those with adult children.

96)  What type of interactions are elder siblings more likely to engage in? 96) ______
  A)  financial and medical assistance
  B)  providing direct assistance to each other
  C)  day-to-day living assistance
  D)  socializing

97)  Eighty-two-year-old Gonzalo has never been married, but his brother Antonio has been happily married for 60 years. What type of interactions will most likely increase as the brothers age? 97) ______
  A)  joint reminiscing about their long and unique history together
  B)  co-residency, where Antonio moves into Gonzalo's home
  C)  Gonzalo's care for Antonio in times of illness
  D)  joint vacations where Gonzalo brings along a significant other

98)  Elderly women state that a primary aspect of their friendships is 98) ______
  A)  acceptance.
  B)  companionship.
  C)  links to the outside world.
  D)  living assistance.

99)  Mrs. Hockaday's physical restrictions do not allow her to go out very much. As a result, she may depend more on her friendships to 99) ______
  A)  take care of her basic care needs.
  B)  entertain her.
  C)  keep her abreast of events in their community.
  D)  help her accept her physical limitations.

100)  Seventy-five-year-old Mr. Griego's son asks him who his closest friends are. According to information in your text, he is most likely to cite 100) ______
  A)  his brother, who lives 1,200 miles away but with whom he converses on the telephone daily.
  B)  his son and the son's wife.
  C)  Mr. Apodaca, who lives in the same community with him.
  D)  Mr. Hernandez, a childhood friend who lives three states away.

101)  Many of 83-year-old Alex's friends have died. As a result, he is likely to 101) ______
  A)  experience depression.
  B)  attend fewer community-sponsored events for elders.
  C)  require more daily living assistance from family members.
  D)  develop more intergenerational friendships.

102)  Mrs. Harkreader and Mrs. St. Jacques meet for lunch occasionally and meet each other once a month to volunteer in a local Head Start program. Mrs. Harkreader and Mrs. St. Jacques are 102) ______
  A)  joint friends.
  B)  partial friends.
  C)  secondary friends.
  D)  fair-weather friends.

103)  The relationship between elders' psychological well-being and their contacts with their children is best described by saying that 103) ______
  A)  contact with children has no effect on elders' mental health.
  B)  contact with children affects only elderly women, not men.
  C)  almost any contact with children improves mental health.
  D)  warm bonds improve mental health; conflict reduces it.

104)  As Joy Ruth's parents age, she wants to provide a great deal of support for them. Her parents will probably want her help in the form of 104) ______
  A)  assistance with day-to-day living tasks.
  B)  financial assistance with living expenses.
  C)  emotional support.
  D)  dealing with medical emergencies.

105)  Mr. and Mrs. Lai's adult children want to provide support that will be psychologically beneficial to them. What type of support should they provide? 105) ______
  A)  moderate support with opportunities to reciprocate
  B)  extensive support with no need for reciprocation
  C)  mild support with no need for reciprocation
  D)  mild support with expected reciprocation

106)  Which pair will probably have the closest parent-child tie as the parent reaches old age? 106) ______
  A)  a daughter and father who did not have custody of her as a child
  B)  a father and son
  C)  a son and father who did not have much contact during the son's childhood
  D)  a mother and daughter

107)  Elders who have adult grandchildren typically expect them to provide 107) ______
  A)  affection but not practical help.
  B)  regular help with day-to-day living tasks.
  C)  a place to move into when they need one.
  D)  financial assistance with living expenses.

108)  As grandparents and adult grandchildren move through life, 108) ______
  A)  the closeness of their emotional ties lessens.
  B)  contact lessens as grandchildren establish distant homes and become immersed in work and family.
  C)  adult grandchildren feel pressured to assist in the daily assistance that the grandparents require.
  D)  grandparents become more dependent on adult grandchildren than on adult children.

109)  Mr. and Mrs. Kaelin are very fond of their adult granddaughter, who has just married and moved to another state. They will find that over time, their contact with her will __________ and their feelings of affection for her will __________. 109) ______
  A)  remain constant; stay the same
  B)  improve; decrease
  C)  diminish; stay the same
  D)  decrease; strengthen

110)  The incidence of elder abuse is __________ because __________. 110) ______
  A)  underestimated; most social workers do not believe elders' claims of abuse or neglect
  B)  overestimated; elders make up stories of abuse to gain attention and sympathy
  C)  overestimated; normal accidents and injuries that result from physical aging are mistaken for signs of abuse
  D)  underestimated; most acts take place in private and victims are often unable or unwilling to complain

111)  Richard often fails to bring food to his elderly mother, forgets to take her to necessary medical appointments, and leaves her for days at a time with no outside contact. Richard is engaged in which type of elder abuse? 111) ______
  A)  financial abuse
  B)  physical abuse
  C)  psychological abuse
  D)  physical neglect

112)  Mrs. Girgenti is experiencing psychological abuse. The abuser is most likely 112) ______
  A)  one of her former co-workers.
  B)  a family member.
  C)  a store clerk.
  D)  a neighbor.

113)  Satonaka has seen a large increase in "granny dumping" at her job. Satonaka probably works 113) ______
  A)  in a nursing home.
  B)  at a homeless shelter.
  C)  in a hospital.
  D)  at the police department.

114)  Elder abuse is more common if the elder's caregiver is 114) ______
  A)  emotionally or financially dependent on the elder.
  B)  an adult who is at least middle-aged or older.
  C)  a sibling or other close relative of the elder.
  D)  working in a challenging, rewarding career.

115)  One type of elder maltreatment that is very difficult to prevent is 115) ______
  A)  abuse by physicians.
  B)  abuse by a stranger.
  C)  abuse by family members.
  D)  abuse at a nursing home.

116)  Effective prevention programs for elder abuse contain 116) ______
  A)  legal action against potential abusers.
  B)  self-efficacy training for elders.
  C)  respite services such as elder day care and in-home help.
  D)  counseling on independent living skills for elders.

117)  Before she retired, Mrs. Chu moved to a part-time position within her division that helped her transition between full-time career and retirement. This is an example of 117) ______
  A)  a transition job.
  B)  a bridge job.
  C)  supplemental income.
  D)  vocational transition.

118)  The first consideration in the decision of whether to retire is generally 118) ______
  A)  the kinds of activities that will be pursued.
  B)  what kind of job a person is retiring from.
  C)  whether there will be enough income.
  D)  how close a person is to his or her children.

119)  Which person is likely to retire first? 119) ______
  A)  Elvester, who works in a blue-collar job
  B)  Lui, who is self-employed.
  C)  Brandes, who is in good health
  D)  Lumeka, who has few leisure interests

120)  Women are more likely to retire earlier than men because 120) ______
  A)  they are typically better off financially.
  B)  they work in unstimulating environments.
  C)  of family events like a husband's retirement or caring for an ill spouse.
  D)  they tend to be in better health.

121)  Women are likely to retire later in life if they are 121) ______
  A)  living in Europe.
  B)  blue-collar workers.
  C)  married.
  D)  poor.

122)  A person who __________ is more likely to convey satisfaction with the decision to retire. 122) ______
  A)  had to stop working due to physical ailments
  B)  finds it hard to give up a predictable schedule
  C)  had a sense of personal control over the choice to stop working
  D)  has difficulty leaving the social contacts of a work setting

123)  Jerilyn has just retired, and worries that her social network will change now that she will no longer see the people she worked with, many of whom were friends, on a frequent basis. Jerilyn should know that 123) ______
  A)  she will experience marked decline in her social network, which could lead to feelings of stress and sadness.
  B)  though her social network will shrink, the quality of her social support is likely to remain stable.
  C)  she will probably make many new friends as she pursues leisure activities, thus increasing her social network.
  D)  she will continue to see her friends, but the quality of the interactions will decline.

124)  The leisure activities pursued during retirement typically include 124) ______
  A)  activities that earn extra money.
  B)  things that have been lifelong interests.
  C)  new activities never pursued before.
  D)  more vigorous physical activities.

125)  Which of these leisure activities is most likely to be practiced by an older adult well past age 80? 125) ______
  A)  camping
  B)  travel
  C)  swimming
  D)  painting

126)  Mr. Lewis-Beasley is a senior citizen who reports great awareness of and interest in public affairs. Which of the following is probably true? 126) ______
  A)  While interested in politics, he will rarely vote.
  B)  His voting behavior is probably driven by self-interest, particularly in the areas of health and safety.
  C)  His political knowledge will show signs of decline.
  D)  His voting behavior is probably driven by a deep desire for a safer, more secure world for future generations.

127)  Elders who work hard to maintain their vitality and are able to limit the age-related declines in physical, cognitive, and social functioning are said to demonstrate 127) ______
  A)  generativity.
  B)  ego integrity.
  C)  successful aging.
  D)  grace under pressure.

128)  Modern definitions of successful aging have shifted the focus AWAY from 128) ______
  A)  the processes elders use to reach personally valued goals.
  B)  the ways in which elders minimize losses and maximize gains.
  C)  accepting and learning to compensate for personal declines.
  D)  specific achievements and physical characteristics.

129)  Which factor outweighs the others with regards to predicting a happy, active old age? 129) ______
  A)  use of effective coping strategies
  B)  early physical health
  C)  longevity of family members
  D)  family warmth in childhood

130)  Your textbook author recommends future-oriented approaches to prepare for the increased aging of the population, including 130) ______
  A)  more emphasis on lifelong learning.
  B)  a decreased number of bridge jobs available.
  C)  more family involvement in the care of elders.
  D)  increased capacity of nursing homes.

ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.
 
131)  Imagine two elderly people. One attains ego integrity; the other experiences despair. What life events might contribute to each of these outcomes? How are these outcomes likely to be revealed in each elder's behavior?  

132)  Describe the different types of reminiscence and the function of each.  

133)  Briefly describe the shifts in three personality characteristics that defy stereotypes of the elderly.  

134)  How does religious involvement benefit elders? What are the differences, if any, by ethnic or SES background?  

135)  What are some of the benefits of elders' reliance on continuity, as described by continuity theory?  

136)  Explain why marital satisfaction is at its peak late in life.  

137)  Describe the four functions of elder friendships.  

138)  For students who have not retired: Think about your life after retirement. What do you think will pose the greatest challenge for you? What are you doing right now that will make your retirement easier or harder to adjust to? What might you change right now to help make your retirement easier?
For students who have retired: In what ways has your retirement been easy or difficult to adjust to? What has posed the greatest challenge? What do you wish you had done differently that might have eased the transition to retirement?