MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1)  According to your text, late adulthood is best viewed as 1) ______
  A)  a break from earlier periods and a time of decreasing potential.
  B)  technically a part of middle adulthood, but delineated separately by researchers because of beliefs held by the general population.
  C)  very different from earlier periods due to the decline, rather than the growth, of skills.
  D)  an extension of earlier periods and a time of continued potential.

2)  The term psychologists use for a person's actual competence and performance in dealing with life's challenges is __________ age. 2) ______
  A)  functional
  B)  biological
  C)  internal
  D)  chronological

3)  Arthur wonders how many years he can expect to live, based upon the fact that he was born in 1927. In other words, he wants to find out the __________ for people born in 1927. 3) ______
  A)  chronological age
  B)  active lifespan
  C)  average life expectancy
  D)  functional age

4)  Twentieth-century gains in life expectancy were equal to those of the previous __________ years. 4) ______
  A)  5,000
  B)  10,000
  C)  100
  D)  500

5)  The decline in the overall death rate of adults in North America can be mostly attributed to 5) ______
  A)  lower infant mortality rates.
  B)  increased safety features in automobiles.
  C)  declines in risk factors such as alcohol consumption and poor nutrition.
  D)  advances in medical treatment.

6)  Mr. and Mrs. Abdulkadir are both 65 years old. Based on current research, which outcome is most likely? 6) ______
  A)  They will both have approximately one more decade of health and vitality before physical and cognitive deterioration impact daily life.
  B)  They will live longer if they reside in the United States rather than any other industrialized nation.
  C)  Mr. Abdulkadir will outlive his wife by about seven years.
  D)  Mrs. Abdulkadir will out live her husband by four to seven years.

7)  Perry is Caucasian American, Terrell is African American, and Wind-Wolf is Native American. Based on information in your text, what can you predict? 7) ______
  A)  Perry has a longer life expectancy than either Terrell of Wind-Wolf.
  B)  Wind-Wolf has a longer life expectancy than either Perry or Terrell.
  C)  Perry and Terrell have longer life expectancies than Wind-Wolf.
  D)  All three men have similar life expectancies.

8)  Although Pearl's mother lived to be 95, the last 10 years of her life were spent in declining health, confined first to a wheelchair and then to a hospital bed. Pearl wonders how many years of vigorous, healthy life she'll have in comparison to her mother. Pearl wants to find out the average __________ for someone her age. 8) ______
  A)  functional age
  B)  chronological age
  C)  active lifespan
  D)  life expectancy

9)  Americans spend more time disabled and die earlier than elders in most other developed countries. These negative statistics are unaffected by which of the following factors? 9) ______
  A)  lack of favorable health care
  B)  a high-fat diet
  C)  inadequate policies for aging Americans
  D)  negative public perceptions of senior citizens

10)  Life expectancy continues to be greater for women than for men. However, data indicate that which place would be the EXCEPTION to this life expectancy discrepancy? 10) ______
  A)  places where women are given equal status to men
  B)  countries in which processed foods are not frequently consumed
  C)  an area where death rates of women in childbirth are high
  D)  any developed country

11)  Researchers speculate that the life expectancy crossover occurs because 11) ______
  A)  only the hardiest males and members of low-SES groups survive into very old age.
  B)  cohort effects have resulted in the appearance of nonexistent gender inequities in life expectancy rates.
  C)  older citizens of developed countries are more susceptible to environmental pollutants produced by those countries.
  D)  citizens in developed countries tend to eat more and exercise less.

12)  Lida is 73 years old and has no problem with basic self-care tasks required to live alone, such as bathing, dressing, getting in and out of bed, and eating. Lida has no difficulty performing 12) ______
  A)  secondary responsibilities of active functioning.
  B)  primary activities of active functioning.
  C)  activities of daily living.
  D)  instrumental activities of daily living.

13)  Although 73-year-old Lida has no problem with physical activities such as dressing and eating, she does have difficulty with tasks that require some cognitive competence, such as preparing food and paying her bills. Lida is displaying difficulty in 13) ______
  A)  activities of daily living.
  B)  instrumental activities of daily living.
  C)  secondary responsibilities of active functioning.
  D)  primary activities of active functioning.

14)  Which person has the greatest chances of living to be 90 or older? 14) ______
  A)  Govindaraj, whose mother lived until 55 and father lived to be 85
  B)  Hechen, whose parents both lived until age 73
  C)  Mahmoud, whose father lived to be 55 and mother lived to be 90
  D)  Piyadasa, whose parents both died in their 60s

15)  The __________ is the genetic limit to length of life for a person who is free of external risk factors. 15) ______
  A)  active lifespan
  B)  average life expectancy
  C)  life expectancy crossover
  D)  maximum lifespan

16)  Which region of the brain is likely to show the LEAST neuron loss with age? 16) ______
  A)  frontal lobes
  B)  cerebellum
  C)  occipital lobes
  D)  corpus callosum

17)  In elderly people, the rate at which the autonomic nervous system releases stress hormones into the bloodstream is generally 17) ______
  A)  lower than it was in early adulthood.
  B)  the same as it was in early adulthood.
  C)  higher than it was in early adulthood.
  D)  more variable than in early adulthood.

18)  Ghouri has worked outdoors all of her life where she was exposed to a great deal of sunlight. As she got older, she developed diabetes. These factors put her at risk for __________ in old age. 18) ______
  A)  macular degeneration
  B)  cataracts
  C)  autoimmune response
  D)  arrhythmia

19)  Impaired eyesight in late adulthood is mostly due to 19) ______
  A)  damage to the optic nerve from the eye to the brain.
  B)  loss of brain cells in the visual areas of the brain.
  C)  a change in the shape or size of the eye itself.
  D)  a reduction in the light reaching the retina of the eye.

20)  Which statement about centenarians is accurate? 20) ______
  A)  After-death examinations of centenarians reveal brain abnormalities that could explain resistance to Alzheimer's disease.
  B)  Because we have reached the genetic limits on aging, the numbers of centenarians will remain approximately the same in the future as they are now.
  C)  The number of centenarians is expected to increase twelvefold by the year 2050.
  D)  Very few centenarians are able to lead active, independent lives.

21)  Robust centenarians tend to have 21) ______
  A)  a long and successful career.
  B)  a genetic predisposition towards longevity.
  C)  a timid, pessimistic personality style.
  D)  a history of daily exercise.

22)  Joslin, who just turned 109 years old, has just completed a personality test. Based on results of tests with other centenarians, we can anticipate that Joslin will score highly on which trait? 22) ______
  A)  emotional insecurity
  B)  dependence
  C)  wariness to change
  D)  toughmindedness

23)  Tarek has a family history of macular degeneration. Which of the following would you recommend to him as the most effective preventive measure? 23) ______
  A)  daily rigorous exercise
  B)  vitamin supplements
  C)  ocular exercises
  D)  a diet rich in green, leafy vegetables

24)  Compared with vision loss in elderly people, hearing loss has a larger effect on a person's 24) ______
  A)  ability to live independently.
  B)  enjoyment of life.
  C)  employment.
  D)  self-esteem.

25)  After age 70, an elder's capacity to respond appropriately to other people declines because he or she is less able to 25) ______
  A)  hear at high frequencies.
  B)  hear startling noises.
  C)  distinguish simple tone patterns, particularly lower frequencies and at a softer level.
  D)  detect the content and emotionally expressive features of conversation.

26)  An elderly person who has a problem with hearing loss can deal with this loss most effectively by 26) ______
  A)  avoiding unnatural solutions such as hearing aids.
  B)  closing his or her eyes to minimize visual distractions.
  C)  seeking out quieter environments for conversations.
  D)  acting as though there has been no change in hearing.

27)  Smoking, dentures, medication, and environmental pollutants can affect taste perception, but __________ can help make food more attractive to older adults. 27) ______
  A)  flavor additives
  B)  social gatherings at mealtimes
  C)  culinary counseling
  D)  artistic arrangements

28)  If impaired, which sensory loss would impact an elder's ability to detect rancid food and the presence of a fire? 28) ______
  A)  touch
  B)  smell
  C)  vision
  D)  taste

29)  A reduction in the sense of touch affects primarily what portion of the body? 29) ______
  A)  the fingertips
  B)  the feet
  C)  the face
  D)  the arms

30)  The primary effect of the normal age-related changes in the functioning of the heart is 30) ______
  A)  slower blood flow through the body.
  B)  higher heart rates during exercise.
  C)  a faster, more effective heartbeat.
  D)  softer, thinner artery walls.

31)  The amount of air that can be forced in and out of a person's lungs decreases throughout adulthood primarily because 31) ______
  A)  the lungs grow smaller as their cells die.
  B)  the blood can't absorb as much oxygen.
  C)  the lung tissue becomes less elastic.
  D)  the rib cage can no longer expand as much.

32)  Marchelle's immune system has begun to turn against normal body tissues, which is referred to as 32) ______
  A)  primary aging.
  B)  selective optimizaton with compensation.
  C)  compression of morbidity.
  D)  an autoimmune response.

33)  85-year-old Barbara wants her doctor to predict her odds of surviving for the next two years. Her doctor 33) ______
  A)  could run tests on her heart and lung capacity, which are the strongest indicators of longevity.
  B)  can see if she has high T cell activity, which is a strong predictor.
  C)  should tell her that there is no way to do this.
  D)  should recommend that she eat a low-fat diet, take vitamin supplements, and abstain from exercise and walking in her neighborhood to avoid life-threatening falls.

34)  Elijah is 80 years old. He is unlikely to have difficulty with which sleep-related activity? 34) ______
  A)  waking up early
  B)  staying asleep
  C)  falling asleep
  D)  sleeping deeply

35)  Twenty to thirty times every night, Emilio awakes briefly. Although he doesn't realize it, each awakening is preceded by 10 second periods where he actually stopped breathing. Emilio is exhibiting symptoms of 35) ______
  A)  panic attacks.
  B)  insomnia.
  C)  sleep apnea.
  D)  narcolepsy.

36)  Which of the following contributes to a higher incidence of sleep disturbances in men than in women? 36) ______
  A)  lower levels of both testosterone and estrogen
  B)  reduction in size of the prostate gland
  C)  sleep apnea
  D)  foot cramps

37)  Elderly people who have trouble sleeping can reduce their difficulties by 37) ______
  A)  taking frequent short naps during the day.
  B)  taking sleeping pills on a regular basis.
  C)  cutting back on their exercise level.
  D)  realizing they are normal and not worrying.

38)  Which of these age-related changes will likely be less pronounced in future generations? 38) ______
  A)  yellow, cracked, or chipped teeth and receding gums
  B)  creasing and sagging of the skin
  C)  thinning hair
  D)  broadening of the nose and ears

39)  Weight changes after age 60 typically involve 39) ______
  A)  weight loss due to less lean body mass.
  B)  less fat accumulated on the torso.
  C)  weight gain due to decreased activity.
  D)  weight gain from fat accumulations.

40)  Eighty-six-year-old Anne has lost 50 percent of her muscle strength and has lost flexibility and strength in her tendons and ligaments. As a result, which of the following will be most difficult for her? 40) ______
  A)  rising from a chair
  B)  tying her shoes
  C)  taking a shower
  D)  sitting up straight

41)  Which of the following signs of aging is linked to longevity? 41) ______
  A)  sensory functioning
  B)  baldness
  C)  graying hair
  D)  facial wrinkles

42)  Elderly people tend to report more physical and psychological problems with aging if they 42) ______
  A)  use cosmetics and surgery to look young.
  B)  see aging as a time of social importance.
  C)  fight aging with exercise and diet.
  D)  see it as inevitable and uncontrollable.

43)  Mrs. Kovak's medications all have "smart caps" on them that beep to remind her to take her medicine and track the times and number of pills she takes. The smart cap is an example of 43) ______
  A)  implicit memory.
  B)  assistive technology.
  C)  a "crutch" used by many elders that reduces their independence and hastens the onset of Alzheimer's by reducing cognitive functioning.
  D)  selective optimization with compensation.

44)  Voice-command telephones and sensor-activated room lights are examples of 44) ______
  A)  assistive technology that may become available for purchase in the near future.
  B)  assistive technology that will soon be available in all new housing.
  C)  assistive technology usually covered in the United States and Canada under government-sponsored health-care programs.
  D)  assistive technology usually covered in Sweden under government-sponsored health-care programs, but not the United States or Canada.

45)  The check-out clerk assumes Mrs. Banerje cannot hear due to her advanced age and speaks very loudly to her. Which of the following scenarios depicts stereotype threat? 45) ______
  A)  Mrs. Banerje becomes flustered and has trouble counting out her money and then cannot remember where she parked her car when she leaves the store.
  B)  Mrs. Banerje is embarrassed by the clerk's behavior and speaks to the store manager. She suggests the store conduct a discrimination awareness training to avoid alienating other customers.
  C)  Mrs. Banerje does not realize the clerk is yelling. She pays the clerk and then leaves the store.
  D)  Mrs. Banerje is appreciative of the clerk's consideration for her hearing loss.

46)  Television ads portraying elders increasingly depict them as 46) ______
  A)  mildly impaired.
  B)  perfect grandparents.
  C)  adventurous golden agers.
  D)  the subject of ridicule.

47)  A family celebrates a great-grandmother's release from the responsibilities of middle age, her new freedoms and competencies, and her senior place in the family and society. The celebration is planned as a surprise for her sixtieth birthday party. This ritual is called 47) ______
  A)  kanreki.
  B)  isumataq.
  C)  gulabjamen.
  D)  quincinero.

48)  In several studies, 12 to 20 percent of elders with disabilities 48) ______
  A)  had become disabled due to injuries that occurred during early adulthood that had not been treated properly.
  B)  showed improvement 2 to 6 years later.
  C)  maintained their independent living status with no outside support from others.
  D)  died within 2 years of becoming disabled.

49)  The main reason low-SES ethnic minority elders are less likely to follow a doctor's instructions is that 49) ______
  A)  they do not wish to prolong their lives.
  B)  they don't believe they can control their health through their own actions.
  C)  they do not trust their doctors, most of whom are white.
  D)  they are healthier overall than other people.

50)  How do men and women compare in their physical health after age 85? 50) ______
  A)  Men are less likely to be impaired than are women.
  B)  Women have more fatal diseases than do men.
  C)  Men have more nonfatal conditions than do women.
  D)  Women have fewer health problems overall.

51)  The public health goal of reducing the average period of diminished vigor before death as life expectancy extends is called 51) ______
  A)  compression of morbidity.
  B)  living until you die.
  C)  reduction of complaints.
  D)  anticipation of mortality.

52)  As Mrs. Cotner ages, she becomes excluded from important social roles and is gradually separated from the community. The outcome of this change will be that 52) ______
  A)  Mrs. Cotner will experience reduced psychological well-being.
  B)  she spends more time caring for her grandchildren.
  C)  Mrs. Cotner's health improves as she is exposed to fewer contagious illnesses, such as the flu.
  D)  she becomes more active in leisure and volunteer activities.

53)  Sarabi and her parents want to be sure that her grandmother continues to remain active and alert for as long as possible. They should 53) ______
  A)  talk her into resigning her current duties on the local school board and giving up her volunteer work so that she can rest.
  B)  have her move to a retirement community in Florida, even though it would be farther away from her family.
  C)  support her as she remains active in the community.
  D)  place her in a residential center where everyone around her is the same age.

54)  Mr. Prieto is an elder who does not eat as much as he used to. Which of the following statements is relevant to this situation? 54) ______
  A)  Declines in taste and smell often reduce the quantity and quality of food eaten.
  B)  Elders should reduce their caloric intake significantly in their later years, as the body requires less fuel to maintain a healthy status.
  C)  As long as he is taking vitamin supplements, he should remain physically and cognitively healthy.
  D)  Mr. Prieto probably leaves a very active lifestyle.

55)  Your elderly neighbor is wondering whether she should take vitamin supplements to protect against cardiovascular disease and memory loss. What should you tell her? 55) ______
  A)  These supplements have benefits for enhanced immune response, but no proven benefits for cardiovascular disease or memory loss.
  B)  This is a good idea, as research has shown vitamin-mineral supplements to show strong effects in these areas.
  C)  These supplements are only useful for very active people.
  D)  Vitamin supplements are not necessary if you are eating well.

56)  A friend of yours, who is generally healthy at age 85, is considering beginning an exercise program that involves vigorous walking. What advice should you give? 56) ______
  A)  Exercise is good, but it should not be weight-bearing.
  B)  Exercise this late in life is dangerous and not helpful.
  C)  This is a very good idea and can provide real benefits.
  D)  Your friend should only do this if male, because there are risks for females.

57)  A major barrier to getting older men and women to take up a fitness routine is 57) ______
  A)  the fact that "taking it easy" is the best treatment for many chronic diseases.
  B)  lack of transportation to and from exercise classes.
  C)  lack of awareness of benefits and discomforts expected from physical activity.
  D)  few exercise classes are available that are appropriate for this age group.

58)  Reports of a decline in sexual desire and activity among older people 58) ______
  A)  may be exaggerated by cohort effects, as newer generations of elders will probably be more sexually active.
  B)  are based upon a very small sample of individuals over the age of 90.
  C)  are inaccurate, as elders with more leisure time on their hands are able to commit more time to sexual activity.
  D)  reflect one of the few stereotypes about elders that is true.

59)  If an elderly couple stops having sexual activity, which partner typically initiates this cessation? 59) ______
  A)  both of them equally
  B)  the man
  C)  the woman
  D)  neither; elderly couples never stop having sex

60)  What are the sex differences in death rates from cardiovascular disease and cancer? 60) ______
  A)  Women have higher death rates for both cardiovascular disease and cancer than men.
  B)  There are no sex differences in the death rates from these two diseases.
  C)  Men have higher death rates for cardiovascular disease and women have higher death rates from cancer.
  D)  Men have higher death rates for both cardiovascular disease and cancer than women.

61)  Mr. Ozturgut is experiencing serious breathing difficulty, caused by extreme loss of elasticity in his lung tissue. He has which condition? 61) ______
  A)  diabetes
  B)  lung cancer
  C)  emphysema
  D)  pneumonia

62)  Why does the death rate due to pneumonia increase so sharply during late adulthood? 62) ______
  A)  Pneumonia is much more deadly today than it was several decades ago.
  B)  Because many lung inflammations are classified as pneumonia, making it erroneously appear that pneumonia kills more people than it actually does.
  C)  The death rate is calculated as a percentage, and since so few people live until late adulthood, the percentages killed by certain diseases calculate higher.
  D)  As the immune systems of elders weaken over time, they eventually encounter an infection that they cannot fight.

63)  Mrs. Schmida has just experienced a blockage of blood flow to her brain. This condition is known as __________ and is the fourth most common killer of older adults. 63) ______
  A)  Alzheimer's
  B)  a heart attack
  C)  emphysema
  D)  a stroke

64)  Which of these is the best example of primary aging? 64) ______
  A)  far-sightedness from a stiffening lens
  B)  lung cancer from smoking cigarettes
  C)  high blood pressure from prolonged stress
  D)  weight gain from a sedentary lifestyle

65)  Which of these is the best example of secondary aging? 65) ______
  A)  decrease in the maximum heart rate
  B)  heart disease from smoking cigarettes
  C)  far-sightedness from a stiffening lens
  D)  lack of menstruation after menopause

66)  Arthritis, diabetes, and unintentional injuries are all major sources of __________, in which an individuals weakened functioning interferes with everyday competence and leaves the older person vulnerable. 66) ______
  A)  terminal decline
  B)  primary aging
  C)  frailty
  D)  secondary aging

67)  Mr. Hiroshi is experiencing painful, stiff, and swollen joints in his knees. His doctor informs him that the cartilage on the ends of his bones is deteriorating due to decades of wear and tear. Mr. Hiroshi has 67) ______
  A)  diabetes.
  B)  rheumatoid arthritis.
  C)  osteoarthritis.
  D)  osteoporosis.

68)  At age 72, your friend has just been told by the doctor that he shows signs of osteoarthritis. You can tell your friend that 68) ______
  A)  it is caused by an autoimmune reaction.
  B)  this is a normal condition in older adults.
  C)  it is caused by a lack of exercise in his life.
  D)  he should increase the calcium in his diet.

69)  Mrs. Shanteau is experiencing inflammation in most of her joints, resulting in stiffness, inflammation, and aching. Her doctor informs her that the swelling is due to an autoimmune response that causes the tissue in the cartilage to grow, which will damage surrounding ligaments, muscles, and bones. Mrs. Shanteau should be aware that her condition can result in 69) ______
  A)  some discomfort, which can usually be relieved if she loses between 5 and 10 pounds.
  B)  deformed joints which frequently impact mobility, and a possibility that her heart and lungs can be affected as well.
  C)  incontinence, dementia, and possible heart failure.
  D)  minimal discomfort that can usually be treated with over-the-counter pain medications.

70)  Which condition elevates a person's risk for Alzheimer's disease? 70) ______
  A)  osteoarthritis
  B)  hip fractures
  C)  diabetes
  D)  rheumatoid arthritis

71)  The primary environmental cause(s) of diabetes mellitus is/are 71) ______
  A)  insufficient nutrition.
  B)  an illness of the pancreas.
  C)  inactivity and obesity.
  D)  a late-appearing genetic defect in the immune system.

72)  Which statement about elderly drivers and motor vehicle accidents is true? 72) ______
  A)  They have higher rates of traffic violations, accidents, and fatalities per mile driven than any other age group.
  B)  They have higher rates of traffic violations, accidents, and fatalities per mile driven than any age group EXCEPT drivers under age 25.
  C)  Because of personal worries about visual processing deficits, they tend to drive less and therefore have the lowest rates of traffic violations, accidents, and fatalities per mile driven than any other age group.
  D)  Since so few elderly adults drive after the age of 75, there is little data available on their motor vehicle accident rate.

73)  The most powerful factor in the high rate of automobile accidents in which elders are involved is 73) ______
  A)  a decrease in functioning of fast-twitch muscles, making reflexive movements more difficult.
  B)  an increase in visual processing difficulties.
  C)  driving too slowly as a precautionary measure for slower reflexes.
  D)  hearing loss.

74)  Falls among the elderly are caused in many cases by 74) ______
  A)  osteoporosis, which compacts the spinal column and severely limits mobility.
  B)  difficulty breaking a fall.
  C)  declines in vision, hearing, and mobility, making it harder to avoid hazards and sustain balance.
  D)  weakened bones.

75)  Which of these is a common indirect effect on an elderly person who has had a fall? 75) ______
  A)  an increase in their health insurance rates
  B)  anger at the friends and family who let them fall
  C)  a fear of falling that limits their social activity
  D)  a general softening of bones near the site of the injury

76)  A set of disorders that occurs almost exclusively in old age and in which many aspects of thought and behavior are so impaired that everyday activities are disrupted is referred to as 76) ______
  A)  epilepsy.
  B)  emphysema.
  C)  dementia.
  D)  Alzheimer's disease.

77)  A form of dementia that involves deterioration in subcortical brain regions is 77) ______
  A)  cerebrovascular dementia.
  B)  Parkinson's disease.
  C)  reversible dementia.
  D)  Alzheimer's disease.

78)  Alzheimer's disease and cerebrovascular dementia are both types of 78) ______
  A)  cardiovascular disease.
  B)  angioplastic illness.
  C)  cerebral hypertrophy.
  D)  cortical dementia.

79)  Mrs. LaMarche has been diagnosed with a form of dementia. She is experiencing the gradual loss of many aspects of thought and behavior due to structural and chemical brain deterioration. Mrs. LaMarche has 79) ______
  A)  retrograde amnesia.
  B)  Parkinson's disease.
  C)  Alzheimer's disease.
  D)  cerebrovascular dementia.

80)  The earliest symptoms of Alzheimer's disease are generally 80) ______
  A)  inability to recognize loved ones.
  B)  severe memory lapses.
  C)  personality changes.
  D)  lack of motor control.

81)  After psychological symptoms, such as memory loss and depression, Alzheimer's disease generally progresses to 81) ______
  A)  difficulty digesting food.
  B)  inability to see or to hear.
  C)  a lack of motor control.
  D)  extreme sensitivity to cold.

82)  A definitive diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease is made by 82) ______
  A)  administering a blood test.
  B)  examining the brain after death.
  C)  taking an X-ray image of the brain.
  D)  measuring the person's memory.

83)  The brain of a person with Alzheimer's is likely to 83) ______
  A)  have fewer neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid plaques than people without Alzheimer's.
  B)  overcompensate for the breakdown and disposal of abnormal proteins, leaving too few remaining.
  C)  have higher levels of neurotransmitters.
  D)  have more neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid plaques than people without Alzheimer's.

84)  __________ is the most commonly known risk for sporadic Alzheimer's, present in 50 percent of the cases. 84) ______
  A)  The abnormal ApoE4 gene
  B)  Occurrence of a head injury prior to age 15
  C)  Extremely low levels of aluminum in the bloodstream
  D)  The presence of amyloid plaques

85)  Of the characteristics below, which one has little evidence to link it to Alzheimer's disease? 85) ______
  A)  smoking
  B)  head injury
  C)  cardiovascular disease
  D)  excess dietary fat

86)  Which of these factors seems to REDUCE an individual's risk of contracting Alzheimer's disease? 86) ______
  A)  the blood protein ApoE
  B)  low educational attainment
  C)  a "Mediterranean diet"
  D)  having Down syndrome

87)  The relationship between Alzheimer's disease and education can best be summarized by saying that 87) ______
  A)  many years of higher education increases the risk of Alzheimer's.
  B)  education increases brain growth, producing a cognitive reserve.
  C)  highly educated people tend to live healthier lifestyles all around.
  D)  education teaches techniques for avoiding Alzheimer's disease.

88)  Mr. Omosigho has experienced a series of strokes that have left areas of dead brain cells, causing step-by-step degeneration of his mental ability. Mr. Omosigho is experiencing 88) ______
  A)  cerebrovascular dementia.
  B)  sporadic Alzheimer's.
  C)  familial Alzheimer's.
  D)  atherosclerosis.

89)  A decline in heart disease and more effective stroke prevention methods have resulted in 89) ______
  A)  no change in the incidence of cerebrovascular dementia, as it is directly influenced by heredity and not lifestyle.
  B)  an increase in the incidence of cerebrovascular dementia.
  C)  a decrease in the incidence of cerebrovascular dementia.
  D)  an decrease in the incidence of cerebrovascular dementia in Japan only.

90)  Depressed older adults are likely to __________ their mental difficulties, whereas the demented person will often __________ them. 90) ______
  A)  be unaware of; imagine
  B)  minimize; exaggerate
  C)  make up; imagine
  D)  exaggerate; minimize

91)  It is important that doctors monitor the side effects of the medications they prescribe for elderly people because 91) ______
  A)  they often need much larger doses of a drug to get the same effect.
  B)  these medications may produce symptoms similar to dementia.
  C)  no one really knows the side effects the drugs might produce.
  D)  elderly people often request medications they don't really need.

92)  Interventions that work best for Alzheimer patient's caregivers 92) ______
  A)  should begin early in the caregiving process.
  B)  are effective if the caregiver has a strong system of family supports.
  C)  begin after the caregiver has had about six months of experience caring for the patient.
  D)  are more effective if the patient has familial rather than sporadic Alzheimer's.

93)  Your neighbor is exhausted from caring for her elderly husband who has Alzheimer's. She confides that she is considering the methods below to cope with his constant questioning, agitation, and memory problems. Which of the following would be LEAST effective? 93) ______
  A)  distracting rather than scolding when the person asks the same question over and over.
  B)  being nonresponsive (silent) when the person asks an inappropriate question.
  C)  introducing pleasant activities that relieve agitation.
  D)  responding patiently with reminders and lists when the person blames others for memory problems.

94)  Caregivers for people with Alzheimer's usually say that __________ is the type of assistance they most desire. 94) ______
  A)  knowledge
  B)  caregiving skills
  C)  respite
  D)  coping strategies

95)  According to REACH information, which caregiver of a person with Alzheimer's will benefit MOST from active intervention techniques? 95) ______
  A)  a spouse
  B)  a man
  C)  a friend
  D)  a higher-SES caregiver

96)  Rising Medicare costs for people age 75 and older are primarily due to 96) ______
  A)  increased use of prescription medications.
  B)  long hospital stays following accidental injuries.
  C)  the need for long-term care.
  D)  the need for in-home health workers.

97)  Which elder is most likely to enter a nursing home? 97) ______
  A)  Mr. Overholser, who had a heart attack
  B)  Mr. Holzman, who has dementia
  C)  Mrs. Pegel, who has emphysema
  D)  Mrs. Nairon, who has cancer

98)  Which person is MOST likely to be placed in a nursing home? 98) ______
  A)  Neva, an 83-year-old African American
  B)  Natasha, an 80-year-old Caucasian American
  C)  Nyung, a 95-year-old Asian American
  D)  Nyree, a 90-year-old Japanese great-grandmother

99)  In the United States, Canada, Australia, and Western Europe, at least 60 to 80 percent of all long-term care for older adults is provided by 99) ______
  A)  charitable organizations.
  B)  family members.
  C)  government assistance.
  D)  nursing homes.

100)  Mr. and Mrs. Archuleta had no severe medical needs but have difficulty keeping up with such "life maintenance" issues as cooking and cleaning. They moved into a housing situation that was very homelike, but had staff that provided extra supports. This is an example of 100) ______
  A)  a nursing home.
  B)  assisted living.
  C)  hospice care.
  D)  institutionalization.

101)  Mental abilities that decline at an earlier age typically depend on __________ intelligence, while those that continue to increase until later in life depend on __________ intelligence. 101) ______
  A)  cognitive; emotional
  B)  fluid; crystallized
  C)  emotional; cognitive
  D)  crystallized; fluid

102)  When older adults engage in selective optimization with compensation, they 102) ______
  A)  select only activities that are personally valued to optimize their energy and they also develop ways to compensate for losses.
  B)  show losses in crystallized intelligence only.
  C)  tend to show gains in fluid intelligence.
  D)  attend to only certain parts of a conversation (selective optimization) and then try to fill in the missing pieces later (compensation).

103)  An important reason older adults remember less about the things they have experienced is that they 103) ______
  A)  are not as interested in the world around them.
  B)  frequently suffer from cognitive dementia.
  C)  process information more slowly and incompletely.
  D)  have a great deal of trouble with recognition memory.

104)  __________ memory is a fairly automatic type of memory that demands little mental effort, so performance does not change much in old age. 104) ______
  A)  Explicit memory
  B)  Recall memory
  C)  Automatic memory
  D)  Recognition memory

105)  Mrs. Gaffney sees her neighbor in the supermarket and recognizes her immediately. This recognition takes place without conscious awareness or intent. Mrs. Gaffney's experience is an example of __________ memory. 105) ______
  A)  prospective
  B)  remote
  C)  recall
  D)  implicit

106)  Which sort of memory shows the smallest decline as people grow older? 106) ______
  A)  recall memory
  B)  prospective memory
  C)  remote memory
  D)  implicit memory

107)  When 70-year-old Mrs. Heinen realizes that she frequently recognizes faces, but cannot remember names or information about the person, she is exhibiting 107) ______
  A)  prospective memory deficits.
  B)  difficulty with remote memory.
  C)  associative memory deficit.
  D)  a loss in implicit memory.

108)  Mr. Hackebeil's grandchildren love to hear him talk about the things that he did growing up, and how different the typical lifestyle was back then. When he remembers events from his childhood, he is exhibiting __________ memory. 108) ______
  A)  remote
  B)  recall
  C)  prospective
  D)  implicit

109)  Why do older adults recall adolescent and early adulthood experiences more readily than their mid-adulthood lives? 109) ______
  A)  Declines in fluid intelligence make information-retrieval of events in mid-life more difficult.
  B)  Deficits in recall memory make it harder for people to describe experiences.
  C)  The memories of earlier life events have been recalled more, so the neural pathways to and from those memories are more easily traveled, thus leading to ease of recall.
  D)  Those events occurred during a period of rapid life change and were probably novel experiences that stood out more.

110)  Which of these is the best example of prospective memory? 110) ______
  A)  remembering the capitals of all 50 states of the United States
  B)  remembering your second-grade teacher's name
  C)  remembering to go to a dentist appointment next week
  D)  remembering the name of a movie you saw recently

111)  Which of the following is an example of an event-based memory task? 111) ______
  A)  taking medicine when an alarm goes off
  B)  setting an alarm to remind you to take medicine
  C)  remembering a special event, like high school graduation
  D)  taking medicine every 12 hours

112)  Laboratory studies of prospective memory typically show greater declines in old age than do real-life studies, primarily because 112) ______
  A)  the lab tasks are focused more on recall than on recognition.
  B)  elderly people make no attempt to perform well in laboratories.
  C)  older people set up systems to remind themselves in real life.
  D)  laboratories are often stressful places for older adults.

113)  Language comprehension changes very little in late life 113) ______
  A)  for people who speak more than one language, as the dual processing stimulates additional neural regeneration.
  B)  as long as conversational partners speak slowly and elders are given enough time to process written text.
  C)  as long as individuals spend at least two hours per day communicating with others.
  D)  until the late 80s, when skills drop quickly.

114)  The major reason older adults tend to use more pronouns and vague references and to speak more slowly than younger adults is that they 114) ______
  A)  have difficulty retrieving words from long-term memory.
  B)  are showing the earliest symptoms of dementia.
  C)  are beginning to lose muscle control over their mouths.
  D)  have a harder time understanding spoken language.

115)  A common technique used by many elders to compensate for their difficulties in producing language is to 115) ______
  A)  avoid talking as much as possible.
  B)  convey information through sign language.
  C)  speak more loudly and forcefully.
  D)  use simpler grammatical structures.

116)  Which of the following statements about language production and age is accurate? 116) ______
  A)  Elders tend to use more complex grammatical structures, as their listening partner is usually another elder who has greater powers of auditory retention than does a younger person.
  B)  Elders' speech contains fewer pronouns and unclear references, showing an age-related communicative competence.
  C)  Elders show a greater frequency of tip-of-the-tongue states, but they resolve them at a higher rate than do younger people.
  D)  Elders show a lower frequency of tip-of-the-tongue states, indicating minimal loss in language production skills.

117)  Mr. and Mrs. Isabor are an elderly couple living at home. One-third to one-half of their problem-solving activities will involve 117) ______
  A)  marital difficulties.
  B)  situations that arise in the course of their volunteer work.
  C)  management of IADLs.
  D)  relating to their children.

118)  What type of problem is an elder most likely to actively try to solve? 118) ______
  A)  daily living issues that they feel are under their control
  B)  interpersonal conflicts
  C)  problems in the workplace
  D)  conflicts with grown children

119)  Which of these cognitive abilities shows improvement as adults grow older? 119) ______
  A)  traditional problem solving
  B)  practical problem solving
  C)  health problem solving
  D)  linguistic problem solving

120)  Broad practical knowledge based on extensive experience, the ability to use it practically to solve life problems, and emotional maturity are important parts of 120) ______
  A)  fluid intelligence.
  B)  wisdom.
  C)  generativity.
  D)  crystallized intelligence.

121)  According to your text, wisdom can be summed up as 121) ______
  A)  general familiarity with human problems.
  B)  expertise in the conduct and meaning of life.
  C)  an intrinsic characteristic that develops with age.
  D)  a cumulative benefit of age.

122)  In an uncertain, real-life test of wisdomsuch as what to do if a friend is considering suicidewhich person is MOST likely to display wisdom? 122) ______
  A)  someone whose career involved human service
  B)  a male
  C)  a younger person
  D)  a person who had few adversities in his or her life

123)  Which of the following people is more likely to show greater cognitive declines, even after initial health and SES are controlled? 123) ______
  A)  a war veteran
  B)  a long-distance runner
  C)  a cigarette smoker
  D)  an aging homemaker

124)  The relationship between chronic health conditions and poor intellectual performance in late adulthood may be 124) ______
  A)  overlooked by many doctors who deal with aging.
  B)  underestimated by most researchers.
  C)  the best method of predicting intellectual decline.
  D)  exaggerated by the fact that brighter adults are more likely to engage in health-protective behaviors.

125)  Marla is retiring from a job as a receptionist. If she wants to retain positive intellectual abilities, she needs to 125) ______
  A)  develop stimulating leisure activities.
  B)  maintain a relaxed, unstructured life.
  C)  find leisure activities that are similar in nature to the job she left.
  D)  maintain open communication with family and friends.

126)  Mr. Janek's scores on cognitive tasks have become increasingly unstable, indicating cognitive declines. These declines 126) ______
  A)  signify possible depression.
  B)  are related to chronological age.
  C)  are an indication of distance to death.
  D)  are an early warning sign of diabetes.

127)  Before he died, Jaime's family noticed a marked decrease in his cognitive functioning. He spent less time talking and reading, and more time staring off into space or out the window. Jaime's behavior is indicative of 127) ______
  A)  the cognitive slope.
  B)  increased morbidity.
  C)  mental despair.
  D)  terminal decline.

128)  In an older adult, an extended, steep decline in cognitive functioning is a sign of 128) ______
  A)  an infectious disease.
  B)  atherosclerosis.
  C)  impending death.
  D)  cortical dementia.

129)  Cognitive intervention 129) ______
  A)  is only helpful with those who have shown no declines in cognitive functioning yet.
  B)  has shown strong gains for those who had shown cognitive functioning declines over time periods as long as 14 years.
  C)  has not been proven through objective research.
  D)  doesn't affect cognitive abilities as much as it makes older people try harder to remember things and stay focused.

130)  Your elderly relative is concerned that she seems to be losing some of her cognitive abilities. What is the best advice you can give her? 130) ______
  A)  Don't worry about it, this is normal for people your age.
  B)  Keep your mind active and learn cognitive coping strategies.
  C)  There is nothing you can do; this is a sign of Alzheimer's disease.
  D)  There must be a physical cause, such as a brain tumor.

131)  Mr. and Mrs. Taber are taking a course through the University of the Third Age. From this information, we can infer that the Tabers 131) ______
  A)  Tabers are active, well-educated, and financially well off.
  B)  do not live in the United States.
  C)  are deeply religious.
  D)  are unaware of the many scams targeting older adults.

132)  You have been asked to help coordinate a two-week university program for elders. Which of the following pieces of advice should you follow? 132) ______
  A)  Relate new material to what elders have already learned by drawing on their experiences and giving many vivid examples.
  B)  Charge tuition to increase attendance; elders are more likely to attend the entire two weeks if they've had to pay for it in advance.
  C)  Present information at a fairly rapid pace, because of elders' advanced cognitive processing skills.
  D)  Get a lot of young instructors that the elders can relate to.

133)  Which of the following statements about continuing education for seniors is accurate? 133) ______
  A)  Government-sponsored programs often partially cover Elderhostel costs for seniors.
  B)  Continuing education opportunities help elders overcome their own ingrained stereotypes of aging.
  C)  Community senior centers experience little demand for course offerings for low-SES elders.
  D)  Higher-educated participants in Elderhostel courses report learning the most from their experiences.

ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.
134)  Describe factors that influence life expectancy.  

135)  An elderly relative has trouble falling asleep at night and wonders if he should take prescription sleeping aids. What advice can you give him?  

136)  How do physical appearance and mobility change in late adulthood? What can elders do to limit declines in mobility?  

137)  Discuss nutritional problems and considerations for older adults.  

138)  Your text discussed how assistive technology can help elderly people maintain their independence. Pick a typical room in an average house, and add assistive technology to make it "ideal" for an older person. Discuss what you would do.  

139)  Your grandfather complains that his arthritis is acting up and preventing him from doing many of his favorite activities. What are some options you could recommend for managing his condition? Would the options differ based on the type of arthritis he has?  

140)  Discuss how comparisons of African-American and Yoruban incidences of Alzheimer's contribute to theories of joint genetic and environmental factors.  

141)  Explain how difficulties with working memory impact recall for older adults.  

142)  What are the similar characteristics among older adults who are considered to display wisdom?  

143)  Explain the benefits of continuing education for elders.