MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1)  In Erikson's theory of adult development, the major psychological conflict of midlife is called 1) ______
  A)  controversy versus stability.
  B)  intimacy versus confusion.
  C)  autonomy versus shame and doubt.
  D)  generativity versus stagnation.

2)  Which of the following best describes the term generativity? 2) ______
  A)  eternity
  B)  anything involving reproduction and parenting
  C)  any product resulting from the need for self-expression
  D)  everything generated that can outlive the self and ensure society's continuity and improvement

3)  Which of the following is a product of generativity? 3) ______
  A)  a sense of dissatisfaction with the world as it currently is
  B)  a strong, fulfilling marriage
  C)  volunteer work with Habitat for Humanity
  D)  a close personal friendship with someone you work with

4)  At age 43, Darryl is a successful lawyer who gets a lot of satisfaction from guiding young lawyers starting out in the firm, coaching his daughter's basketball team, and being camp leader for his son's Boy Scout troop. According to Erikson, he has most clearly developed a sense of 4) ______
  A)  generativity.
  B)  intimacy.
  C)  autonomy.
  D)  integrity.

5)  According to Erikson, generativity is motivated by 5) ______
  A)  a desire to be remembered by one's good works.
  B)  a "belief in the species" that promotes an optimistic world view, despite destructiveness and deprivation.
  C)  the sense that one's days are numbered and the sense of quiet desperation that ensues.
  D)  the need to protect one's children from danger, violence, and evil.

6)  The negative outcome, or lack of a sense of generativity, of Erikson's midlife stage is __________ which focuses on self-indulgence. 6) ______
  A)  autonomy
  B)  generativity
  C)  stagnation
  D)  insecurity

7)  Although Inez has a stable marriage, three successful grown children, and a good job, she is very self-centered and self-indulgent. She has little involvement with her children or their families, other than to remind them what gifts she wants for her birthday or Mother's Day. She "puts in her hours" at work, but is indifferent to how she could improve her productivity or that of her office. Erikson would say that Inez 7) ______
  A)  is going through a midlife crisis.
  B)  is a pain in the neck.
  C)  is typical of those in middle adulthood.
  D)  has developed a strong sense of stagnation.

8)  Arlen is highly generative. As a result, he is likely to 8) ______
  A)  be high in self-acceptance.
  B)  have high anxiety.
  C)  lack leadership qualities.
  D)  exhibit depression.

9)  Donnell recalls growing up in a poor neighborhood, but always having enough to eat, thanks to the leftovers that his parents brought home from the restaurant where they both worked. He also recalls watching his friends and their siblings go hungry, and feeling driven to not only share his own food with them, but to also find other ways to help them. Donnel's recollections are an example of a 9) ______
  A)  commitment story.
  B)  theme of redemption.
  C)  spiritual reawakening.
  D)  theme of contamination.

10)  Forty-five-year-old Lizette remembers how she was caught shoplifting as a teenager, and how the subsequent scare that she received during her visit to the police station steered her away from a troubled adolescent. She credits this event as sparking her interest in social work, and continues to work with troubled and at-risk youth to this day. According to McAdams research on the life stories of generative adults, Lizette's commitment story contains a theme of 10) ______
  A)  reward.
  B)  redemption.
  C)  invincibility.
  D)  contamination.

11)  Elyse, who exhibits little generativity, recalls getting brand new school supplies one year, something that had never before happened in her home, and having them stolen by bullies in the older grades. According to McAdams' research, Elyse's recollection is an example of a 11) ______
  A)  commitment story.
  B)  theme of redemption.
  C)  theme of contamination.
  D)  tale of tragedy.

12)  Daquenette is high in generativity; Prescott is low in generativity. According to McAdams, 12) ______
  A)  Daquenette probably had many more positive events in her life than did Prescott.
  B)  Daquenette's recollections of her life events are probably more accurate than Prescott's.
  C)  Prescott probably has an extremely high number of "turning points" in his life.
  D)  Daquenette and Prescott probably had similar numbers of positive and negative events in their lives, but they interpret the events differently.

13)  According to McAdams, __________ that adults include in their life stories, the higher their life satisfaction, self-esteem, and certainty that the challenges of life are meaningful, manageable, and rewarding. 13) ______
  A)  the more contaminated stories
  B)  the fewer commitment stories
  C)  the fewer redemptive events
  D)  the more redemptive events

14)  Because Arlen is highly generative, he is also UNLIKELY to 14) ______
  A)  use authoritative parenting.
  B)  be involved in political activities.
  C)  be close-minded about differing viewpoints.
  D)  use open communication.

15)  Which person is likely to experience the greatest increase in generativity? 15) ______
  A)  a man who has no children
  B)  a woman who has no children
  C)  a man who has children
  D)  a woman who has children

16)  Sha'da is African American and Porsche is Caucasian American. Based on information in your text, we can conclude that 16) ______
  A)  Porsche will display more generativity than Sha'da if she belongs to a church group.
  B)  their generativity will be lower than other midlifers who are Asian American or Native American.
  C)  Sha'da and Porsche will display similar levels of generativity in midlife, but Sha'da will display higher levels when they reach their seventies.
  D)  Sha'da will more often display generativity through her involvement in religious groups and will offer more social support to others.

17)  In Levinson's theory of adult development, the period when people evaluate how successful they have been in meeting their early goals and focus on how best to modify their lives to have a meaningful future is called the 17) ______
  A)  life pivot point.
  B)  midlife transition.
  C)  middle-age spread.
  D)  sense of generativity.

18)  Esteban is trying to repair his relationship with his long-estranged parents. According to Levinson, he is engaged in which developmental task? 18) ______
  A)  masculinity-femininity
  B)  engagement-separateness
  C)  young-old
  D)  destruction-creation

19)  Fifty-year-old Brielle really likes the look of short skirts and low-slung pants, but has decided that her wardrobe needs to reflect a more mature style. She has also decided that her crow's feet reflect years of laughter and should be considered a sign of a happy life, rather than a sign of aging. On the other hand, she has decided to take up rollerblading as a way to spend time with her teenage son. According to Levinson, Brielle is engaged in which developmental task? 19) ______
  A)  destruction-creation
  B)  masculinity-femininity
  C)  young-old
  D)  engagement-separateness

20)  Marisal devoted herself to raising her two daughters during early adulthood. She is now becoming more involved in work and her community. According to Levinson, she is engaged in which developmental task? 20) ______
  A)  engagement-separateness
  B)  masculinity-femininity
  C)  young-old
  D)  destruction-creation

21)  Mr. and Mrs. Li's adult children have noticed gradual changes in their parents' personalities over the last decade. Mr. Li has become more empathic and caring; Mrs. Li has become more autonomous and assertive. According to Levinson, the Lis are engaged in which developmental task? 21) ______
  A)  engagement-separateness
  B)  masculinity-femininity
  C)  young-old
  D)  destruction-creation

22)  Which person is likely to perceive themselves to be much younger than their chronological age? 22) ______
  A)  Martin, age 35
  B)  Mathew, age 55
  C)  Maria, age 25
  D)  MaryAnne, age 55

23)  Basing your response on research cited in your text, which person is likely to be the MOST sensitive to physical aging over the midlife years? 23) ______
  A)  Ayanna, a female who never attended college
  B)  Fitima, a college-educated female
  C)  Tyler, a college-educated male
  D)  Andrew, a male who never attended college

24)  According to Levinson, middle-aged adults often feel a desire to __________ in order to advance human welfare and leave a legacy for future generations. 24) ______
  A)  find age-appropriate ways to express personal qualities
  B)  counter destructive forces
  C)  reconcile masculine and feminine parts of the self
  D)  balance their engagement with the external world and separateness

25)  During midlife, people's gender roles tend to become 25) ______
  A)  more gender-typed.
  B)  more androgynous.
  C)  more feminine.
  D)  more masculine.

26)  Which person is more likely to pursue a satisfying life structure successfully? 26) ______
  A)  Patsanne, a corporate executive who works only the hours she wants to
  B)  Penny, who is unemployed
  C)  Parker, a blue-collar worker
  D)  Peter, who lives in poverty

27)  According to Vaillant, the primary responsibility for the functioning of society falls on people who are 27) ______
  A)  elderly adults.
  B)  midlife adults.
  C)  politically motivated.
  D)  young adults.

28)  In societies around the world, older people become 28) ______
  A)  a liability, as costs associated with aging diminish resources for the entire population.
  B)  a stabilizing force that holds in check the rapid change sparked by younger adults.
  C)  impatient with the lack of positive changes that have occurred over their lifetime.
  D)  more dissatisfied with what they perceive to be the failures of their generation.

29)  Victor, who has just turned 45, is going through a period of great stress. He is filled with self-doubt and begins some major life-restructuring as a result. Victor is exhibiting behaviors consistent with 29) ______
  A)  conscientiousness.
  B)  the Young-Old Developmental Task.
  C)  neuroticism.
  D)  a midlife crisis.

30)  Which statement is true? 30) ______
  A)  According to Vaillant, men are more likely to experience a midlife crisis.
  B)  Typical change related to inner turmoil happens suddenly during middle adulthood.
  C)  Vaillant's work showed little evidence of a midlife crisis in most people's lives.
  D)  Levinson's work showed little evidence of a midlife crisis in most people's lives.

31)  Marita, in her early fifties, is making some life changes. The direction of these changes will depend on 31) ______
  A)  whether or not she has a college degree.
  B)  whether she focused on a "feminine," "masculine," or "combination" social clock during early adulthood.
  C)  the quality of her social network.
  D)  the age of her husband, and whether he is also instigating life changes.

32)  In his mid-forties, Edgar felt enormous turmoil, dissatisfaction, and unhappiness with his life. He decided to quit his job, leave his family, and start a new life on a communal farm in Colorado. Research on midlife crisis indicates that Edgar is 32) ______
  A)  very unusual for middle-aged adults.
  B)  much less satisfied with the results of his new life.
  C)  typical of men, but totally unlike most women.
  D)  typical of most people in midlife.

33)  The majority of adults who report experiencing a midlife crisis report all of the following EXCEPT 33) ______
  A)  changes attributed to challenging life events.
  B)  a much looser definition of midlife crisis than that of researchers.
  C)  a very wide age range in which the crisis occurred.
  D)  major depression or anxiety attacks.

34)  Sina, who has a Ph.D. in archaeology, dreamed of spending her life among archaeological ruins and discovering lost artifacts. In fact, she has spent the majority of her career as a university professor, in order to give her family the stability she thinks they need. When looking back on the last two decades of her life, she wishes she had made different career choices. Sina is experiencing 34) ______
  A)  openness to experience.
  B)  a midlife crisis.
  C)  Levinson's young-old task.
  D)  life regrets.

35)  Sankaran turned down a highly lucrative job in the private sector that required extensive travel to take a position at a local college, in order to spend more time with his family. Which of the following outcomes would be predictive of Sankaran's long term greater life satisfaction? 35) ______
  A)  Sankaran identifies benefits associated with his college job, but still strongly regrets his career choice.
  B)  Sankaran constantly reminds his family of the sacrifice he made for them, and they act appropriately appreciative every time he does this.
  C)  Sankaran quits his college position and takes the more lucrative job which eventually causes his wife to divorce him, allowing little time for him to see his children.
  D)  Sankaran accepts that his college position is not completely satisfying, but identifies the benefits to his relationship with his family as being worth the sacrifice.

36)  Most people in midlife 36) ______
  A)  make changes that are best described as "turning points" rather than drastic alterations of their lives.
  B)  engage in major life alterations, but since the outcomes are usually positive these life changes are not considered to reflect a "crisis."
  C)  who experience some sort of crisis typically come from higher-SES backgrounds, with the flexibility to relocate, change careers, or even stop working altogether.
  D)  experience some life reflection, but most do not implement any kind of life change.

37)  Dr. Malkerneker is a researcher who does not believe that midadult transition occurs in a stagelike process. Therefore, she is likely to view midadult transition as 37) ______
  A)  an adaptation to normative life events such as children growing up, reaching the crest of a career, or impending retirement.
  B)  nonexistent.
  C)  a popular psychological myth that has no scientific evidence for its existence.
  D)  a biological process, initiated by hormonal changes that occur during the natural aging process.

38)  Because __________, they cannot be the single cause of midlife change. 38) ______
  A)  life events are not as age graded as in early adulthood
  B)  changing gender roles are more common
  C)  external pressures are less during middle adulthood
  D)  pressures to positively impact the world occur at all age levels

39)  According to most researchers, the midlife transition occurs as the result of 39) ______
  A)  a combination of growing older and social experiences.
  B)  modifications in the way synapses in our brains function.
  C)  changes in the external forces that are at work in our lives.
  D)  qualitative changes in our thinking due to getting older.

40)  Shamika hopes that she will continue to be healthy in the future, and will be able to retire early enough to enjoy her grandchildren. She worries about her husband's health and hopes she will not have to face widowhood. Shamika is considering her 40) ______
  A)  future model.
  B)  generalized goal.
  C)  internal map.
  D)  possible self.

41)  Possible selves are the __________ dimension of self-concept. 41) ______
  A)  negative
  B)  most inaccurate
  C)  positive
  D)  temporal

42)  As a young adult, Christian wanted to be a great athlete and a very successful businessman. As he enters middle adulthood, he will probably 42) ______
  A)  focus less on the business success and more on the athleticism in an attempt to regain his youth.
  B)  become depressed that he didn't achieve his goals.
  C)  concentrate more on enhancing personal relationships and being competent at work.
  D)  strive harder to make his current self match his possible self.

43)  An important difference between possible selves and current self-concept is that possible selves are 43) ______
  A)  generally smaller and more modest in scope.
  B)  more controlled by other people's feedback.
  C)  defined and redefined by the individual.
  D)  less likely to change as we grow older.

44)  As Alberto progresses from early to late adulthood, we can anticipate that his self-acceptance, autonomy, and environmental mastery will 44) ______
  A)  decrease from early to middle adulthood and then increase in old age.
  B)  increase throughout his lifespan.
  C)  increase from early to middle adulthood and then level off.
  D)  decrease from early to middle adulthood.

45)  As Oksana reaches middle adulthood, she acknowledges and accepts both her good and bad traits. She feels positively about herself and her life. Oksana is displaying 45) ______
  A)  self-acceptance.
  B)  resignation.
  C)  environmental mastery.
  D)  autonomy.

46)  Middle-aged people see themselves as more __________, that is, less concerned about expectations and evaluations of others and more concerned with following self-chosen standards. 46) ______
  A)  insecure
  B)  self-regulating
  C)  autonomous
  D)  self-accepting

47)  Kascey knows that she is able to manage a complicated array of tasks easily and effectively, which is what makes her such a good administrator. Kascey is displaying 47) ______
  A)  autonomy.
  B)  environmental mastery.
  C)  self-acceptance.
  D)  a life interpretation.

48)  Research on the quality of life in middle age has found that this period can generally be described as 48) ______
  A)  the prime of life.
  B)  a time of crisis.
  C)  a period of rapid change.
  D)  filled with insecurity.

49)  Cross-cultural research has shown that a middle-aged Korean adult will probably 49) ______
  A)  report higher levels of psychological well-being than a North American counterpart.
  B)  strongly endorse individualistic traits such as self-acceptance and autonomy.
  C)  view personal fulfillment as being achieved through family, particularly the success of their children.
  D)  have lower well-being scores on positive relations with others.

50)  Mr. and Mrs. Maguluri are a couple in their late forties. Which of the following statements about daily stressors is probably accurate? 50) ______
  A)  Their daily stressors are less disruptive and unpleasant now than they will be later in life.
  B)  Few of their daily stressors are related to their children.
  C)  They will report fewer daily stressors now than they will in their sixties.
  D)  Mrs. Maguluri reports more frequent role overload while Mr. Maguluri reports more work-related stressors.

51)  Lucas is a middle-aged accountant. When frustrated by co-workers, he is LEAST likely to 51) ______
  A)  deny how upsetting their behavior is to him.
  B)  postpone responding to their actions in order to evaluate alternatives to handling the situation.
  C)  anticipate and plan ways to handle future discomforts.
  D)  use humor to express his ideas and feelings without offending others.

52)  Shakira, an office supervisor, is well liked and respected by those who work for her. She can find the "silver lining" to a stressful situation, anticipates and plans for possible problems, and uses humor to express ideas and feelings. Shakira is probably 52) ______
  A)  a young adult.
  B)  not effective as a supervisor, even though she is well liked.
  C)  a middle-aged individual.
  D)  using emotion-centered strategies for coping with stress.

53)  Maura, age 56, engages in a daily exercise regimen. As a result, she is likely to 53) ______
  A)  worry more about age-related physical deterioration than less active individuals her age.
  B)  have more physical injuries than other adults her age.
  C)  have reduced feelings of vulnerability to illness that typically increase with age.
  D)  be more afraid of losing an active lifestyle as she gets older.

54)  Deb becomes so engaged in a professional writing activity that she loses all track of time. She is experiencing 54) ______
  A)  the early onset of senility.
  B)  flow.
  C)  preoccupation.
  D)  ADD.

55)  Virginia places occupational prestige and a high income over the importance of friends in her life. On a test of psychological well-being, she is likely to 55) ______
  A)  show evidence of a highly stressful life.
  B)  score highly in the "well-adjusted" category.
  C)  describe herself as "unhappy."
  D)  describe herself as "extremely happy."

56)  Gayle is a 46-year-old married doctor who exercises daily. Which factor is the most powerful predictor of Gayle's mental health in midlife? 56) ______
  A)  being married
  B)  the ability to multitask that is required of a doctor
  C)  being in good health
  D)  the financial security associated with being a doctor

57)  Research showing that gender identity becomes more androgynous in midlife 57) ______
  A)  is not consistent among nonindustrialized nations.
  B)  is based upon work done with Mayan villagers in Guatemala.
  C)  has not been conducted in other cultures.
  D)  is consistent across SES and culture.

58)  Which of the following statements is inconsistent with the parental imperative theory? 58) ______
  A)  Both warmth and assertiveness are necessary to rear children effectively.
  B)  Gender role identity is maintained during active parenting years to help ensure survival of the children.
  C)  Children's departure from the home is related to men's openness to the "feminine" side of their personalities.
  D)  After children leave the home, parents are free to express the "other gender" side of their personalities.

59)  An alternative to parental imperative theory suggests that men become more androgynous in midlife because 59) ______
  A)  self-reliance and assertiveness are vital for coping with reduced career advancement opportunities.
  B)  a high number become widowers, requiring them to modify gender-role behaviors in order to compete for a steadily declining number of middle-aged women.
  C)  of a need to enrich a marital relationship after children have departed.
  D)  their wives get fed up with male assertiveness and threaten to leave if they don't change.

60)  Abigail has just been appointed director of the research and development division of her company. Because she is a college-educated woman who has attained high status at work, research indicates that she will probably gain in __________ by her early fifties. 60) ______
  A)  outspokenness
  B)  guardedness
  C)  passivity
  D)  submissiveness

61)  Androgyny in middle adulthood is associated with 61) ______
  A)  advanced moral reasoning and psychosocial maturity.
  B)  fewer life regrets and more possible selves.
  C)  decreased self-acceptance and autonomy.
  D)  greater environmental mastery and neuroticism.

62)  Marjorie worries constantly about the trouble her children might get into. She complains that they go out of their way to make her life miserable and that she doesn't know how to deal with her life. Marjorie is at one extreme of which of these "big five" personality traits? 62) ______
  A)  extroversion
  B)  agreeableness
  C)  neuroticism
  D)  conscientiousness

63)  Pavel enjoys parties, the bigger and louder the better. He is talkative, emotionally reactive to others, and tends to be bored and depressed if he is alone for too long. Pavel best exemplifies which of these "big five" personality traits? 63) ______
  A)  neuroticism
  B)  extroversion
  C)  agreeableness
  D)  conscientiousness

64)  Sonja is very imaginative and creative. She enjoys tasting new foods, meeting new people, thinking new ideas. Sonja best exemplifies which of these "big five" personality traits? 64) ______
  A)  extroversion
  B)  conscientiousness
  C)  agreeableness
  D)  openness to experience

65)  Warren is generous, kind, and good-natured. He always has good words to say about his friends and tries to find the best qualities in everyone he meets. Warren best exemplifies which of these "big five" personality traits? 65) ______
  A)  agreeableness
  B)  conscientiousness
  C)  neuroticism
  D)  extroversion

66)  Donna is highly organized, punctual, and reliable. Her friends and coworkers know she can always be counted on to meet her deadlines and keep her promises. Donna best exemplifies which of these "big five" personality traits? 66) ______
  A)  extroversion
  B)  conscientiousness
  C)  agreeableness
  D)  neuroticism

67)  Prit can be characterized by the "big five" personality trait of agreeableness. He 67) ______
  A)  will probably also become more open and extroverted as he reaches middle adulthood.
  B)  will probably become less conscientious as he ages.
  C)  can anticipate that this trait will increase through middle age.
  D)  can anticipate that this trait will decrease through middle age.

68)  Cross-cultural research of the "big five" personality traits has led researchers to conclude that 68) ______
  A)  they are not consistent across cultures.
  B)  the stability of the personality traits is inconsistent across time.
  C)  adult personality change is genetically influenced.
  D)  individual differences in the traits are small but highly unstable.

69)  Dr. Laha is studying the stability of the "big five" personality traits. She is likely to measure 69) ______
  A)  characteristics of very small samples of individuals and conduct intensive interviews with each person.
  B)  personality traits on which individuals can be easily compared and are present at any time of life.
  C)  how certain aspects of personality, such as masculinity and femininity, are integrated.
  D)  motivations, preferred tasks, and coping styles.

70)  Because they have ties to older and younger generations in their families and have well-established friendships, people in midlife tend to __________ than at any other period of their lives. 70) ______
  A)  have a harder time balancing work responsibilities
  B)  experience more relationship-related stress
  C)  have a larger number of close relationships
  D)  have less time to engage in leisurely pursuits

71)  __________ is the more current term for the phase formerly known as the "empty nest." 71) ______
  A)  "Liberation and advancement"
  B)  "Launching children and moving on"
  C)  "Expanding horizons"
  D)  "The beginning of independence"

72)  Which of the following was NOT discussed in the text as a reason for the rise in marital quality for married, middle-aged couples? 72) ______
  A)  Men who previously focused on careers often realize the limited nature of their pursuits.
  B)  Watching adult children engaged in their lives makes couples more aware of the time they have left in their own lives.
  C)  Women often insist on a more gratifying relationship.
  D)  As women return to the workforce after raising children, their husbands view them as more of a partner than they did previously.

73)  Midlifers are able to adapt more easily to __________ than younger people, resulting in less decline in psychological well-being when it does occur. 73) ______
  A)  changing gender roles
  B)  divorce
  C)  remarriage
  D)  job layoffs

74)  The __________ refers to a trend in which women who support themselves or their families have become the majority of the adult poverty population. 74) ______
  A)  female poverty cycle
  B)  feminization of poverty
  C)  marriage-divorce-poverty phase
  D)  gender equity movement

75)  The author of your text suggests that __________ could reduce the United States gender gap in poverty, which is currently higher than other industrialized nations. 75) ______
  A)  stronger public policies that safeguard families
  B)  stronger alimony laws
  C)  stricter divorce laws
  D)  federally mandated pre-marital counseling

76)  Fifty-year-old Alvin has just asked his wife for a divorce. Chances are he 76) ______
  A)  is unemployed.
  B)  is married to an alcoholic.
  C)  already has another romantic partner to turn to.
  D)  is frustrated with the lack of communication in his marriage.

77)  Cherita has just gotten divorced after 23 years of marriage. When asked what she considers important in a healthy relationship, she is likely to place 77) ______
  A)  less emphasis on romance.
  B)  greater weight on passionate love.
  C)  greater weight on equal friendship.
  D)  more emphasis on financial security.

78)  Current information on how middle-aged men adjust to divorce shows that 78) ______
  A)  they adjust poorly and typically show anger and depression.
  B)  they are generally happier after divorce than before.
  C)  how well they adjust depends on the reasons for the divorce.
  D)  there is little research on them, since most remarry very quickly.

79)  Your friend's children will be growing up and leaving home in the next five years or so, and your friend is concerned about how satisfying life can be after they are gone. According to the book, the best advice you can give for ensuring increased life happiness after they leave is for her to 79) ______
  A)  keep them in the family unit as long as possible.
  B)  spend as much time with them as possible now.
  C)  separate completely from them after they go.
  D)  develop a strong work orientation.

80)  Which of these factors can create parental strain as parents and children approach the launching phase? 80) ______
  A)  a strong orientation toward work
  B)  a strong focus on the children
  C)  a child who is off the social clock
  D)  difficulties in raising the children

81)  Mr. and Mrs. Gallassetti live in Italy with their 23-year-old son. Based upon cultural norms, we can anticipate that 81) ______
  A)  their parent-child relationship is probably strained.
  B)  their son is significantly off the social clock.
  C)  they grant him very little freedom within their home.
  D)  he will probably not move out until he marries.

82)  Research on early child-rearing styles and parents' relations with adult children shows that 82) ______
  A)  warm and supportive parents will have closer relationships with their grown children.
  B)  permissive parents maintain the strongest ties with their children after launching them off.
  C)  children whose parents were authoritarian tend to keep in closer contact with their parents.
  D)  there is no relationship between parenting styles and adult relationships.

83)  Throughout middle adulthood, parents' relationships with their young adult children tend to involve 83) ______
  A)  escalating tensions and stresses with adult children.
  B)  giving more assistance and advice than they receive.
  C)  daily monitoring and awareness of their life activities.
  D)  fairly complete separation and isolation from each other.

84)  Which characteristic of young adult children is more important for midlife parental well-being? 84) ______
  A)  educational success
  B)  positive psychological adjustment
  C)  child production
  D)  occupational success

85)  Maile has become the person in her family who brings everyone together for family celebrations. She spends considerable time and energy ensuring that family members stay in touch. Maile is her family's 85) ______
  A)  arranger.
  B)  kinkeeper.
  C)  family guardian.
  D)  social secretary.

86)  Mr. and Mrs. Lepesheva's adult daughter quit her job to come a private consultant. Business has slowed, and the Lepeshevas know she is struggling financially. Based on information in your text regarding the promotion of positive ties with adult children, which of the following would you recommend? 86) ______
  A)  The Lepeshevas should ask their daughter whether she would like some financial assistance or business advice.
  B)  They should give her some money, with the stipulation that it is a loan to which they will charge a set amount of interest.
  C)  The Lepeshevas should contact her previous employer and negotiate to get her old job back.
  D)  They should do nothing except be supportive, as their daughter must learn to deal with the consequences of her own actions.

87)  Sharon and Robin love being grandparents and delight in the ability to have fun with the grandchildren without the major responsibilities of child-rearing. Which aspect of grandparenthood does this refer to? 87) ______
  A)  reinvolvement with personal past
  B)  valued elder
  C)  immortality through descendants
  D)  indulgence

88)  The closest grandparent relationships are typically those between 88) ______
  A)  grandfathers and granddaughters.
  B)  grandfathers and grandsons.
  C)  grandmothers and granddaughters.
  D)  grandmothers and grandsons.

89)  Which of the following is most likely to promote a close bond between an older grandchild and grandparent? 89) ______
  A)  the proximity to which they live near each other
  B)  the relationship between the child's parent and grandparent
  C)  the health of the grandparent
  D)  the extent to which the grandchild believes the grandparent values contact

90)  In which family would you expect the grandparent role to be more structured, diverse, and engaged in higher quality activities? 90) ______
  A)  the Jetsons, who live within 30 minutes of all five of their married children and their 15 grandchildren
  B)  the Jeffreys, a lower-SES family whose single daughter and her children live with them
  C)  the Johnsons, who live 30 minutes from their married daughter and her children
  D)  the Jacksons, upper-SES grandparents who live 600 miles from their grandchildren

91)  In many ethnic subcultures, including Chinese- and Mexican-American families, the role of the grandparent is 91) ______
  A)  primarily one of storyteller and entertainer.
  B)  focused on passing down cultural traditions.
  C)  seen as interfering with the parents' authority.
  D)  central to the grandchild's caregiving.

92)  According to the text, courts should exercise restraint in awarding grandparents visitation privileges because 92) ______
  A)  of the questionable abilities of many older adults to adequately supervise young children
  B)  of the possible psychological damage for the children involved
  C)  of the dangerous legal precedent that could be set
  D)  intense family conflict usually lies behind the legal petitions of grandparents

93)  The primary reason elderly people are less likely to live with their adult children today than they were decades ago is that 93) ______
  A)  nursing homes are more affordable and of better quality today.
  B)  today's adult children are less concerned about their parents.
  C)  most modern homes don't have enough room for the parents.
  D)  elders today have the health and finances to live independently.

94)  In __________, children live with grandparents but apart from parents. 94) ______
  A)  skipped-generation families
  B)  many countries other than the United States
  C)  many states with strong grandparent visitation rights laws
  D)  most cases of adult drug abuse

95)  Mr. and Mrs. X are unemployed and caring for their two grandchildren. This is particularly stressful for them, as they live in poverty and Mr. X is a diabetic who uses a wheelchair and requires frequent medical attention. Mr. and Mrs. X's situation is more common among which ethnic group? 95) ______
  A)  Asian-American
  B)  Caucasian-American
  C)  African-American
  D)  Native-American

96)  Help is more likely to be exchanged between adult children and their aging parents when 96) ______
  A)  there are a large number of grandchildren.
  B)  the parents are in generally good health.
  C)  both parents are still living and married.
  D)  they have a positive relationship history.

97)  Middle-aged adults who balance the needs of aging parents and financially dependent children are called 97) ______
  A)  economically challenged.
  B)  kinkeepers.
  C)  Real Troopers.
  D)  the sandwich generation.

98)  Eighty-year-old Shirley requires more personal care than her husband can provide. If they are representative of most families, the person who will most likely step in to help is 98) ______
  A)  her daughter.
  B)  her son.
  C)  her doctor.
  D)  their neighbor.

99)  About 10 percent of the time, sons become the primary caregivers to elderly parents because 99) ______
  A)  no other family member can do so.
  B)  of unusually high feminine characteristics in their personalities, such as caregiving and affection.
  C)  their economic burdens are lessened when they move in with their parents.
  D)  of stipulations in the parents' will.

100)  One of the reasons that caring for a chronically ill parent is different, and often more stressful, than caring for a young child is that 100) ______
  A)  the duration of caregiving is usually for a fixed amount of time, leading caregivers to try and maintain work, family, and social obligations, rather than cutting back on their responsibilities like they would if the caregiving were for an undetermined period.
  B)  the grandchild-grandparent conflicts that result from living in the same home force adults to make choices between their children or their parents.
  C)  parents are often unaware that they need care, so they display frustration with the adult son or daughter's attempts to help.
  D)  the need for parental care arises suddenly, with little time for preparation.

101)  Which type of relationship between an adult child and an elderly parent tends to produce the greatest stress? 101) ______
  A)  living together with an elderly parent who is ill
  B)  living together with an elderly parent who is well
  C)  living separately and having frequent contact
  D)  living separately and having little contact

102)  Role overload, high job absenteeism, exhaustion, inability to concentrate, and high rates of depression are typical of 102) ______
  A)  parental caregivers.
  B)  young children whose grandparents live with them.
  C)  grandparents who live with children and grandchildren.
  D)  parents who live with their children.

103)  The factor that is most effective in reducing the stress of caring for an elderly parent is 103) ______
  A)  governmental subsidies to help with the finances.
  B)  having enough space to keep the parent at home.
  C)  gratitude from the parent for the help that is provided.
  D)  social support from family, friends, and neighbors.

104)  Teresa is considering quitting her job in order to take care of her aging father. Based on information in your text, what should you tell her? 104) ______
  A)  A nursing home is an easily affordable solution and can provide better quality care than she can.
  B)  She should avoid quitting work as long as possible, as the social isolation and loss of financial resources will add to her stress.
  C)  The United States has a government-sponsored home helper system to ease the burden of parental care, so she should not have to quit her job.
  D)  She should quit work as soon as she is able to, as the longer her father is without care, the more his condition may worsen.

105)  Sibling relationships typically 105) ______
  A)  improve during middle adulthood.
  B)  improve during middle adulthood for African Americans and Mexican Americans, and hold constant for all other ethnic groups.
  C)  fluctuate significantly, depending on the gender of the siblings and the health of the parents.
  D)  decline between early and middle adulthood.

106)  In industrialized nations, __________ tend to be emotionally closest during middle adulthood. 106) ______
  A)  siblings who did not get along as children
  B)  sister-brother bonds
  C)  sister-sister bonds
  D)  brother-brother bonds

107)  Which event tends to cause an increase in sibling ties during middle adulthood? 107) ______
  A)  the birth of grandchildren
  B)  beginning a new job
  C)  parental illness
  D)  the birth of children

108)  Compared to adult men, adult women report 108) ______
  A)  a greater number of close friends.
  B)  a greater willingness to break off a friendship.
  C)  more friendships as they get older.
  D)  less satisfaction with their friendships.

109)  Which statement about friendships during midlife is true? 109) ______
  A)  The number of friendships increases with age.
  B)  People are more willing to invest in nonfamily ties.
  C)  Older adults work harder to initiate new friendships.
  D)  Older adults express more complex ideas about friendship.

110)  Compared with younger people, how do middle-aged adults deal with problems in their friendships? 110) ______
  A)  They are likely to feel personally threatened by the problem.
  B)  They are more likely to stop being friends with the person.
  C)  They are likely to work harder to preserve the friendship.
  D)  They are more likely to ignore the problem and keep going.

111)  Ewanda and her mother, Treva, are surveyed about their ties to one another. Based on research cited in your text, which of the following outcomes of their survey would you anticipate? 111) ______
  A)  Ewanda expresses a deeper sense of commitment to her mother than Treva expected.
  B)  Treva describes closer ties to Ewanda than Ewanda feels toward Treva.
  C)  Ewanda feels resentment towards the amount of government assistance her mother receives, while her granddaughter's school funding remains scandalously low.
  D)  Ewanda's willingness to grant time and assistance to her mother is partially motivated by financial need.

112)  When people are dissatisfied about government benefits to another age group because they believe the needs of one generation are unmet, they are expressing 112) ______
  A)  unfounded rumors.
  B)  concern for preferential treatment.
  C)  a norm of equity.
  D)  concerns that have developed only during the last decade.

113)  Compared with younger adults, workers who are middle-aged adults are more likely to 113) ______
  A)  be absent from work.
  B)  have a lower accident rate.
  C)  change jobs.
  D)  have low productivity.

114)  As employees grow older, what generally happens to their overall job satisfaction? 114) ______
  A)  It decreases substantially.
  B)  It shows no change.
  C)  It increases steadily.
  D)  It decreases slightly.

115)  Which of the following adults would probably have the highest job satisfaction? 115) ______
  A)  a 50-year-old male executive
  B)  a 25-year-old teacher
  C)  a 45-year-old woman
  D)  a 40-year-old blue-collar worker

116)  Which aspect of a worker's job satisfaction changes the most during adulthood? 116) ______
  A)  extrinsic satisfaction
  B)  corporate satisfaction
  C)  borderline satisfaction
  D)  intrinsic satisfaction

117)  Dorinda has been experiencing job stress for several years. As a result, she is emotionally exhausted and feels a loss of personal control and accomplishment. Dorinda is experiencing 117) ______
  A)  a life regret.
  B)  a midlife crisis.
  C)  burnout.
  D)  depression.

118)  Ensuring reasonable workloads, limiting hours of stressful work, and offering social support are all 118) ______
  A)  strategies that employers can use to prevent burnout.
  B)  factors that increase employee burnout.
  C)  employer-implemented programs that actually reduce productivity.
  D)  components of employee support systems in Europe that have yet to be implemented in the U.S.

119)  As workers get older, their opportunities for training and vocational development tend to 119) ______
  A)  increase steadily.
  B)  decrease somewhat.
  C)  remain constant.
  D)  increase slightly.

120)  Jarrett has been working in his field for over three decades, but has not received any type of professional development for the last five years. Which of the following statements is probably accurate? 120) ______
  A)  Jarrett's skills are so advanced that he doesn't need additional training.
  B)  Jarrett is unwilling to receive additional training because the trainers are all younger than he is.
  C)  The younger workers in Jarrett's company are in greater need of vocational training than he is, so they receive priority for the limited professional development funds.
  D)  Jarrett's supervisor has negative stereotypes about older workers, so she doesn't think additional training would be helpful for him.

121)  One way to help employees develop a broader perspective on their contribution to the company, feel a part of the organization, and upgrade their skills is to 121) ______
  A)  install computer networks.
  B)  hire external consultants to conduct vocational development seminars.
  C)  have a suggestion box located in every department.
  D)  provide lots of inservice training on management plans developed by administrators.

122)  Which person is most likely to encounter a glass ceiling? 122) ______
  A)  an African-American man
  B)  an African-American woman
  C)  a Caucasian-American man
  D)  a Caucasian-American woman

123)  Which of these factors is most likely to contribute to the glass ceiling that prevents many women and ethnic minorities from reaching the top levels of their profession? 123) ______
  A)  They are generally less effective as managers and supervisors.
  B)  Companies have to do more on-the-job training for these people.
  C)  There aren't many women and minority mentors and role models.
  D)  They are often given more difficult assignments than white men.

124)  When women demonstrate qualities such as assertiveness, confidence, and ambition, 124) ______
  A)  they are generally given positions that reflect the value of those qualities.
  B)  the glass ceiling is typically lifted.
  C)  the glass ceiling disappears completely.
  D)  they encounter prejudice because they deviate from traditional gender roles.

125)  Olivia, a female middle manager, and Octavio, a male middle manager, are both frustrated with the lack of advancement opportunities in their company. Which of the following can you predict? 125) ______
  A)  Octavio is probably a better manager.
  B)  Olivia will probably leave her job to devote more time to her family.
  C)  Olivia is more likely than Octavio to receive any future promotions.
  D)  Olivia is more likely than Octavio to quit her job and start her own business.

126)  In general, when a middle-aged worker completely changes his or her career, the reason is typically 126) ______
  A)  pressure to change from one's family.
  B)  a personal crisis in the family or career.
  C)  the normal result of the midlife transition.
  D)  a personality conflict with one's employer.

127)  Compared with younger workers, middle-aged workers who lose their jobs involuntarily are more likely to experience 127) ______
  A)  a sense of freedom and relief.
  B)  greater psychological distress.
  C)  increases in their generativity.
  D)  greater optimism and determination.

128)  An important factor in helping middle-aged workers cope with losing their jobs is 128) ______
  A)  social contact with those who share their interests.
  B)  leaving them alone to preserve their dignity.
  C)  pretending that nothing has really changed.
  D)  getting them involved with household management.

129)  Benedicta has just lost her job of twenty years as a result of downsizing. Which of the following is likely to be true? 129) ______
  A)  The demand from employers for men and people from ethnic minority backgrounds will make it harder for her to find a job.
  B)  She will be underqualified for most positions she is interested in, due to advances in training and technology.
  C)  She will encounter age discrimination when she tries to find a new job.
  D)  She will be able to duplicate her status and salary in another position.

130)  The average age of retirement has decreased in North America due to 130) ______
  A)  pressure from corporations to hire younger, less expensive workers to replace older employees.
  B)  an increase in post-retirement options for older adults.
  C)  government-sponsored retirement benefits.
  D)  a longer lifespan and greater physical health of older adults.

131)  Retirement can be stressful since it leads to a loss of two important work-related rewards, 131) ______
  A)  income and status.
  B)  income and benefits.
  C)  interaction with others and a steady income.
  D)  intrinsic and extrinsic satisfaction.

132)  Which of these is most necessary for a retired person to be happy and well-adjusted after retirement? 132) ______
  A)  good health insurance
  B)  planning an active life
  C)  a long working career
  D)  moving to a new city

133)  People with lower educational achievements and who earned less while working tend to approach retirement with 133) ______
  A)  little preparation, though they need it more than others.
  B)  little preparation because they do not need it as much.
  C)  more preparation for how they will live after working.
  D)  the same preparation as higher-paid and educated workers.

ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.
134)  Explain the three ways in which generativity and life-story redemption events are connected.  

135)  Discuss possible reasons, aside from the parental imperative theory, that could explain why men and women become more androgynous in middle adulthood.  

136)  Which of the "big five" personality traits do you think best describes you? Give a brief description of the trait and personal characteristics to justify your answer.  

137)  Ten percent of divorces occur after a marriage of 20 years or more. Which party typically initiates the divorce? Discuss the reasons given by men and women for their divorces.  

138)  Discuss the changes in the mother-daughter relationship from early through middle adulthood.  

139)  Explain why women and ethnic minorities face a glass ceiling.