MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1)  Middle age begins around age __________ and ends around age __________. 1) ______
  A)  50; 75
  B)  60; 80
  C)  45; 60
  D)  40; 65

2)  Middle age is hard to define because 2) ______
  A)  there is consistency in the family life cycle during this period, despite basic inconsistencies in physical abilities.
  B)  it is a contemporary phenomenon, basically nonexistent before the twentieth century.
  C)  most people in their forties and fifties do not consider themselves to be middle-aged.
  D)  adults delay childrearing into their later years, and so are just beginning the aspects of the life cycle that are traditionally associated with early adulthood.

3)  Getting a fatal disease, being too ill to maintain independence, and losing mental capacities are all 3) ______
  A)  typical experiences of middle-aged adults.
  B)  formerly common problems of middle adulthood that have been pushed back to the seventies or later, thanks to medical advances.
  C)  unlikely to occur during the middle adulthood years.
  D)  prominent concerns of middle-aged adults.

4)  Growth of the lenses in Jim's eyes, combined with the weakening of the muscle that enables them to adjust their focus will result in which outcome? 4) ______
  A)  Jim will have difficulty reading small print.
  B)  Jim will be very sensitive to the light.
  C)  Jim will have difficulty discriminating colors.
  D)  Jim will have problems driving at night.

5)  Presbyopia is 5) ______
  A)  the inability of the lens to adjust to objects at varying distances.
  B)  a disease in which pressure builds up within the eye due to poor fluid drainage.
  C)  a limited ability to see in dim light.
  D)  yellowing of the lens.

6)  Which of the following contributes to the problems of those in middle adulthood who cannot see clearly in dim light? 6) ______
  A)  development of opaque areas in the vitreous
  B)  changes in the lens and vitreous that cause light to scatter within the eye
  C)  thinning of the lens
  D)  broadening of the pupil

7)  Increased scattering of light within the eye, due to changes in the lens and vitreous, causes 7) ______
  A)  difficulty adjusting to different distances.
  B)  serious eye disorders and blindness.
  C)  increased sensitivity to glare.
  D)  reduced sensitivity to bright lights.

8)  Which of the following is an example of a neural change in vision? 8) ______
  A)  presbyopia
  B)  loss of rods and cones
  C)  yellowing of the lens
  D)  glaucoma

9)  Juanita cannot feel a buildup of pressure in her eye due to poor fluid drainage. This pressure, left untreated, can damage her optic nerve and is a leading cause of blindness. Juanita has 9) ______
  A)  myopia.
  B)  glaucoma.
  C)  presbycusis.
  D)  presbyopia.

10)  Floyd complains that his hearing isn't as sharp, and refers to his condition as "old ears." The technical term for Floyd's condition is 10) ______
  A)  prelingual hearing loss.
  B)  sensorineural hearing loss.
  C)  presbyopia.
  D)  presbycusis.

11)  The first sign of hearing loss in middle age is typically 11) ______
  A)  problems making yourself understood.
  B)  difficulty in understanding other people.
  C)  a sharp hearing loss at high frequencies.
  D)  hearing ghostly knocks and whistles.

12)  Which of the following provides evidence that severe hearing problems are caused by factors other than biological aging? 12) ______
  A)  Most people in middle adulthood hear reasonably well across a wide frequency range.
  B)  The first hearing loss experienced by most people occurs at high frequencies.
  C)  Human speech is more difficult to make out after about age 60.
  D)  Most people begin to experience hearing loss at around 50 years of age.

13)  Cigarette smoking, occupational noise, higher blood pressure and cerebrovascular disease are all thought to be 13) ______
  A)  factors contributing to middle-aged hearing loss in industrialized societies.
  B)  reasons why men's hearing declines earlier and more rapidly than women's.
  C)  unrelated to hearing and vision losses among older individuals.
  D)  individuals from upper-SES backgrounds show greater hearing losses than their lower-SES counterparts.

14)  In which skin layer are new skin cells produced? 14) ______
  A)  epidermis.
  B)  dermis.
  C)  hypodermis.
  D)  protodermis.

15)  The aging process causes fat in the __________ to diminish, resulting in skin that becomes more wrinkled and loose. 15) ______
  A)  dermis
  B)  epidermis
  C)  hypodermis
  D)  protodermis

16)  Alana (age 20) wants to avoid premature aging of her skin. Which preventive measure will have the greatest impact on her skin? 16) ______
  A)  using proper skin protection or avoiding the sun
  B)  weekly sessions at a tanning booth
  C)  avoiding harsh soaps
  D)  yearly checkups by a dermatologist

17)  Women's skin ages more quickly because 17) ______
  A)  the dermis is not as thick as that of men.
  B)  the use of makeup impairs the skin's ability to retain elasticity.
  C)  of hormonal changes caused by menopause.
  D)  the weight changes brought about by childbearing reduce elasticity.

18)  One area where fat DECREASES during middle adulthood is 18) ______
  A)  on the face.
  B)  beneath the skin of the arms and legs.
  C)  the abdomen.
  D)  on the back.

19)  Theresa is a woman entering her fifties. She can anticipate an accumulation of fat in which area(s) of her body? 19) ______
  A)  back and hips
  B)  upper abdomen
  C)  face and legs
  D)  waist and upper arms

20)  Muscle mass declines during middle adulthood, primarily due to 20) ______
  A)  atrophy of fast-twitch fibers.
  B)  atrophy of slow-twitch fibers.
  C)  increased metabolism.
  D)  changes in exercise and diet.

21)  Mrs. Chang wants to avoid the characteristic weight gain of middle adulthood. She should 21) ______
  A)  maintain a low-fat diet, with a gradual reduction in caloric intake.
  B)  be aware that this is a highly unrealistic goal.
  C)  maintain a high-fat diet and exercise at least once a week.
  D)  eat a high carbohydrate, low protein diet.

22)  What type of exercise should Mrs. Chang consider during middle adulthood to offset excess weight and muscle loss? 22) ______
  A)  endurance training that focuses on heart rate
  B)  any kind of activity that does NOT result in a buildup of sweat
  C)  weight-bearing exercise that includes resistance training
  D)  stretching exercises that work on flexibility

23)  Explain how an individual's height can drop by as much as one inch by age 60. 23) ______
  A)  Bones become more porous, resulting in a weakened structure that becomes compacted under a typical individual's weight.
  B)  Tendons and cartilage in the knee collapse, resulting in decreased leg length.
  C)  Loss of bone strength causes the disks in the spinal column to collapse.
  D)  Muscle strength is reduced, creating problems in standing erect for many individuals.

24)  Sixty-year-old Mrs. Banning wants to slow her bone loss. She should 24) ______
  A)  avoid going outside during the peak sunlight hours of 11 a.m. to 3 p.m.
  B)  consume at least 3 alcoholic beverages per day.
  C)  engage in weight-bearing exercise.
  D)  ensure that her diet includes adequate amounts of beta carotene and soy products.

25)  Mr. and Mrs. Riediger are undergoing reproductive transitions. Mrs. Riediger is no longer able to have children, while Mr. Riediger's fertility has diminished. They are BOTH undergoing 25) ______
  A)  spermarch.
  B)  menopause.
  C)  the climacteric.
  D)  menarche.

26)  When Marona was in her twenties, she experienced a very regular, 28-day cycle. Now that she is in her late forties, what can she anticipate? 26) ______
  A)  Her cycle will increase in length gradually over time until it stops altogether.
  B)  Her cycle will remain regular, but will increase in length to around 33 days.
  C)  No change in length or regularity will occur, but it will stop suddenly when she reaches menopause.
  D)  The length of her cycle may decrease to around 23 days and become more irregular.

27)  Lillian's menstrual periods have stopped and she is no longer able to bear children. She has experienced 27) ______
  A)  menses.
  B)  menarche.
  C)  menstruation.
  D)  menopause.

28)  Menopause may impact a woman's sex life because 28) ______
  A)  she is likely to feel depressed and unattractive.
  B)  her mate will see her differently.
  C)  her genitals are less easily stimulated and her vagina lubricates more slowly during arousal.
  D)  her body isn't producing enough sexually stimulating hormones.

29)  Research has shown that dietary calorie restriction 29) ______
  A)  increases accumulation of body fat.
  B)  decreases bone density.
  C)  increases blood glucose and insulin levels.
  D)  slows aging.

30)  Naturally occurring dietary calorie restriction experiments with humans in __________ and __________ showed benefits like stronger immune-system responses. 30) ______
  A)  Okinawa; the Biosphere
  B)  concentration camps; the space station
  C)  agricultural communes; contestants from the Survivor television show
  D)  large Romanian orphanages; Ethiopian drought survivors

31)  Natural food substances, herbs, and a vigorous exercise regimen are all components of 31) ______
  A)  a Type A lifestyle pattern.
  B)  calorie-restriction mimetics.
  C)  a vegetarian lifestyle.
  D)  hardiness.

32)  Which of the following statements about menopause is correct? 32) ______
  A)  Women who experience menopause are at a decreased risk for atherosclerosis, as decreases in estrogen lead to subsequent decreases in plaque buildup on artery walls.
  B)  Decreased estrogen results in increases in bone mass, making bones too heavy and resulting in osteoporosis.
  C)  Hot flashes tend to happen at night, resulting in the sleep problems often reported by menopausal women.
  D)  Studies show no association between menopause and depression, so symptoms of depression merit serious evaluation and treatment.

33)  As she approaches menopause, Glinda wonders if there are any lifestyle changes she can make to minimize potential hot flashes. She should know that 33) ______
  A)  there are no known preventive measures for avoiding hot flashes.
  B)  a diet low in fat and high in soy-based foods may help.
  C)  there is no clinical evidence to support the existence of hot flashes, which are primarily described as problematic by women with depression or other emotional illnesses.
  D)  hot flashes are only experienced by 25 percent of the population, so chances are she won't experience them very often, if at all.

34)  Marlene, who had a hysterectomy, is undergoing menopause. Her doctor will probably recommend 34) ______
  A)  hormone replacement therapy (HRT).
  B)  estrogen replacement therapy (ERT).
  C)  postmenopausal surgery (PMS).
  D)  surgical removal of the ovaries (SRO).

35)  Hormone replacement therapy is UNLIKELY to 35) ______
  A)  provide some protection against bone deterioration and colon cancer.
  B)  reduce the incidence of Alzheimer's if begun during menopausal age.
  C)  counteract hot flashes.
  D)  reduce the risk of breast cancer and blood clots.

36)  Many of Dr. Kittenbrink's patients experiencing menopause want to undergo hormone therapy for relief from menopausal symptoms. Because she is a responsible physician, Dr. Kittenbrink is likely to 36) ______
  A)  prescribe it to all her patients until they no longer have any menopausal symptoms.
  B)  only prescribe it for women who are experiencing severe physical discomfort due to menopause.
  C)  avoid hormone therapy due to the dangerous side effects and recommend a healthy diet, increased physical activity, and meditation instead.
  D)  prescribe it to low-risk patients for no longer than 5 years.

37)  Which of these women is most likely to experience a positive attitude toward menopause and have fewer negative symptoms? 37) ______
  A)  Lisa, who has always taken pride in her physical appearance
  B)  Shawna, a successful lawyer with a busy private practice
  C)  Marcie, who always wanted children but never had any
  D)  Bonita, who never finished high school and has 4 children

38)  Which group of women is most likely to experience a negative attitude toward menopause and have more negative symptoms? 38) ______
  A)  Mexican-American women
  B)  highly educated women
  C)  Caucasian-American women
  D)  African-American women

39)  Men produce less semen and sperm after age 40 39) ______
  A)  and consequently are less interested in sex.
  B)  but continue to produce sperm throughout life.
  C)  with a resulting reduction in testes size.
  D)  and eventually stop producing sperm altogether around age 70.

40)  Which statement about testosterone production is true? 40) ______
  A)  Healthy men who engage in sexual activity experience minimal change in testosterone production.
  B)  Frequent sexual activity diminishes any remaining levels of testosterone during middle adulthood.
  C)  Testosterone levels rise steadily throughout adulthood.
  D)  Testosterone levels remain stable throughout adulthood.

41)  Juanita and Brian have been very happy with the sexual aspect of their 30-year marriage. As Brian experiences climacteric, knowing which fact below will probably ensure their continued happiness? 41) ______
  A)  Brian will need more stimulation to achieve and maintain an erection.
  B)  Brian's sex drive will decrease drastically over the next 5 years.
  C)  Brian will be at risk for an extramarital affair.
  D)  Brian will be able to father children for the rest of his life.

42)  In addition to midlife physical changes, __________ can be caused by disorders of the nervous, circulatory, and endocrine systems; anxiety and depression; and pelvic injury. 42) ______
  A)  hot flashes
  B)  osteoporosis
  C)  male impotence
  D)  atherosclerosis

43)  Women who think of menopause in the context of medicine and health issues tend to focus more on 43) ______
  A)  feelings of control and power.
  B)  positive feelings and optimism.
  C)  improvements in their social status.
  D)  negative symptoms and problems.

44)  Cross-cultural research reveals that women are LESS likely to experience menopause as difficult, unpleasant, or uncomfortable if it 44) ______
  A)  occurs earlier in their lives.
  B)  leads to improved social status.
  C)  is associated with other health problems.
  D)  is treated medically.

45)  Which statement about health and fitness during midlife is correct? 45) ______
  A)  Women are more likely than men to suffer from fatal illnesses.
  B)  Understanding of health in middle and late adulthood is limited by insufficient research on women and minorities.
  C)  Men are more likely than women to suffer from nonfatal, limiting health problems.
  D)  Sexuality is typically excluded as a positive indicator of health.

46)  The best predictor for how much sex a couple has in middle age is 46) ______
  A)  the physical health of the man.
  B)  the physical health of the woman.
  C)  how many children they have had.
  D)  how happily married they are.

47)  As Mr. and Mrs. Golloher reach midlife, they are likely to experience which of the following with regards to their sexual activity? 47) ______
  A)  Both frequency of activity and intensity of response will decline, but spontaneity will increase.
  B)  They will replace sexual activity with behaviors such as cuddling, holding hands, and talking.
  C)  The frequency of sexual activity will increase as their children leave the home, but quality will decline.
  D)  Mr. Golloher is likely to show a marked decline in interest, while Mrs. Golloher will have a greater sex drive but decreased sexual response.

48)  A group of women in their late fifties gathers every week as part of a book club. At one meeting several of the members lament on the fact that they had no sexual partners during the past year. Their lack of sexual activity can most likely be attributed to 48) ______
  A)  a lack of opportunity due to a higher male mortality rate.
  B)  a postmenopausal decrease in sexual desire.
  C)  an increase in impotence among men in their fifties.
  D)  fewer opportunities for mixed-gender social engagements during midlife.

49)  Which statement reflects an INCORRECT stereotype or belief about middle-aged adults? 49) ______
  A)  Falls resulting in bone fractures and death increase substantially from early to middle adulthood.
  B)  Men are more vulnerable than women to most health problems.
  C)  Older adults' driving skills decline and result in a greater number of motor vehicle collisions.
  D)  Cancer is a leading cause of death among middle-aged women.

50)  Which of these factors is a strong predictor of poor health and premature death in middle age? 50) ______
  A)  being female
  B)  being Caucasian
  C)  being highly educated
  D)  being poor

51)  Which type of cancer has decreased in men, but increased in women? 51) ______
  A)  lung cancer
  B)  prostate cancer
  C)  breast cancer
  D)  skin cancer

52)  An illness that occurs when a cell's normal genetic programming is disrupted, causing uncontrolled growth and crowding out of normal cells, is called 52) ______
  A)  cancer.
  B)  stroke.
  C)  climacteric.
  D)  atherosclerosis.

53)  One reason men are more vulnerable to cancer than women is their 53) ______
  A)  tendency to delay going to the doctor.
  B)  attitude of invincibility coupled with a fear of dying.
  C)  bulkier physical builds.
  D)  higher rates of sedentary occupations.

54)  Mr. Lavery is a low-SES male in his fifties, which puts him at a greater risk for __________ cancer. 54) ______
  A)  skin
  B)  prostate
  C)  lung and stomach
  D)  breast

55)  Mrs. Nagra has a BRCA2 mutation. What does this diagnosis tell Mrs. Nagra about her chances of developing breast cancer? 55) ______
  A)  She has less than a 25 percent risk of actually developing breast cancer.
  B)  Her risk for developing breast cancer can be eliminated if she eats a health diet and avoids tobacco and alcohol products.
  C)  She has already developed cancerous cells.
  D)  She is especially likely to develop early-onset breast cancer before age 30.

56)  Mrs. Ng has just had an operation to remove a cancerous lump in her breast. The medical community considers her to be 56) ______
  A)  a high risk for cancer reoccurrence.
  B)  cured of cancer if she remains free of the disease for a year.
  C)  cured of cancer.
  D)  cured of cancer if she remains free of the disease for 5 years.

57)  One hundred middle-aged adults died last year. If the adults are statistically average, how many of those deaths were related to cardiovascular disease? 57) ______
  A)  47
  B)  50
  C)  33
  D)  25

58)  Peter's doctor has just diagnosed him with cardiovascular disease. Because Peter had no symptoms, he is unlikely to have been experiencing __________ at the time of his diagnosis. 58) ______
  A)  atherosclerosis
  B)  high blood pressure
  C)  a heart attack
  D)  high blood cholesterol

59)  A heart attack occurs when an artery that supplies blood to part of __________ is blocked. 59) ______
  A)  the lungs
  B)  the heart
  C)  the liver
  D)  the brain

60)  Mr. Kher has an irregular heartbeat. This condition causes him to feel faint, and is dangerous because it can allow clots to form in the heart's chambers. Mr. Kher has 60) ______
  A)  osteoporosis.
  B)  arrhythmia.
  C)  arterial thrombosis.
  D)  atherosclerosis.

61)  Mr. Caffrey is experiencing indigestion-like pain, which increases to a crushing chest pain. The emergency room doctors diagnose him with an oxygen-deprived heart and inform him that he is experiencing 61) ______
  A)  angina pectoris.
  B)  atherosclerosis.
  C)  a stroke.
  D)  a heart attack.

62)  Mrs. Gobodo is an African American experiencing symptoms of angina. She 62) ______
  A)  may face a double gender-racial bias from doctors who may not recognize or treat her symptoms appropriately.
  B)  probably has heartburn or acid reflux syndrome and has misdiagnosed her own symptoms.
  C)  belongs to a group with the highest rate of heart attacks, followed by Asian women.
  D)  has a higher risk of heart attack than her husband.

63)  Mrs. Kishel's bones have become more porous over the years, reducing her bone density levels and putting her at risk for fractures. Mrs. Kishel has which condition? 63) ______
  A)  coronary thrombosis
  B)  osteoporosis
  C)  atherosclerosis
  D)  ulnar halitosis

64)  Mrs. McWhirter is going through menopause and wonders how this relates to development of osteoporosis. She should know that 64) ______
  A)  most of her bone mass will be lost during her menopausal years.
  B)  once she begins menopause, osteoporosis-related bone loss will end.
  C)  half of her bone mass loss will occur in the 10 years after menopause.
  D)  the greater her menopausal symptoms, the greater her bone loss will be.

65)  Which person has the LEAST risk of developing osteoporosis? 65) ______
  A)  Lyra, who is African american
  B)  Myra, who smokes
  C)  Kyra, who has a thin, small-framed body
  D)  Nyra, who exercises very little

66)  Mrs. Lacayo's doctor has recommended that she engage in weight-bearing exercise, maintain a calcium- and vitamin D-rich diet, and receive hormone therapy. This recommendation is consistent with the treatment plan for 66) ______
  A)  atherosclerosis.
  B)  angina pectoris.
  C)  uterine cancer.
  D)  osteoporosis.

67)  Pauline gets to work early and leaves late, works through lunch, and stays up late doing more work at home. She is very competitive and determined to be vice-president within 5 years. She loses her temper easily and always seems angry. Her behavior pattern would best be described as 67) ______
  A)  hyperactive.
  B)  Type B.
  C)  passive-aggressive.
  D)  Type A.

68)  Which component of Type A behavior, when isolated, consistently predicts heart disease and other health problems? 68) ______
  A)  extreme competitiveness
  B)  ambition
  C)  impatience
  D)  hostility

69)  Frequent and angry outbursts; rude, disagreeable behavior; and critical and condescending nonverbal cues during social interactions are all aspects of 69) ______
  A)  expressed hostility.
  B)  insensitivity.
  C)  competitiveness.
  D)  mental illness.

70)  One possible explanation for the sex differences in heart disease is that 70) ______
  A)  men tend to lead healthier lifestyles.
  B)  men score higher in hostility than do women.
  C)  women tend to consume more alcohol than men.
  D)  women gain more body fat during pregnancy.

71)  The best way for people with a Type A behavior pattern to reduce their risk of heart attack is to 71) ______
  A)  force themselves to take an extended vacation.
  B)  develop more effective ways of handling stress.
  C)  learn not to express the hostility they feel.
  D)  take one aspirin tablet every other day.

72)  During middle adulthood, __________ can limit the rise in age-related illnesses and reduce the severity of disease. 72) ______
  A)  regular medical checkups
  B)  vitamin supplements
  C)  effective stress management
  D)  holistic medicine

73)  Sharon decided that she was unhappy at work. She realized that the primary cause was frustration with an irresponsible co-worker. She met with the individual, came up with strategies to help the young woman meet her responsibilities, and subsequently enjoyed her job more. Sharon used 73) ______
  A)  an indirect method of stress management.
  B)  an emotion-centered coping strategy.
  C)  Stress Identification Therapy (SIT).
  D)  a problem-centered coping strategy.

74)  __________ is internal, private, and aimed at controlling distress when there is little one can do about a situation. 74) ______
  A)  Emotion-centered coping strategy
  B)  Problem-centered coping strategy
  C)  Stress Identification Therapy (SIT)
  D)  Indirect methods of stress management

75)  Which of the following is a characteristic of an effective coping strategy for dealing with stress? 75) ______
  A)  impulsiveness
  B)  aggression
  C)  avoidance
  D)  a mixture of problem- and emotion-centered techniques

76)  People are better at coping effectively with stress during middle adulthood, and they are 76) ______
  A)  more skilled at anticipating and avoiding stressful situations.
  B)  more susceptible to the physical symptoms of stress than those at younger stages of development.
  C)  less able to anticipate and avoid stressful events. Consequently, they have more practice dealing with stress, which causes the subsequent improvement in effectiveness.
  D)  more likely to use emotion-centered than problem-centered coping.

77)  Eileen is the new aerobics instructor for a class aimed at mid-lifers. She is excited to have 20 adults show up for her first class. Eileen should know that 77) ______
  A)  the majority of her students are probably Type A personalities.
  B)  her high expectations for this group should be revised in order to avoid any physical stress-related heart attacks during class.
  C)  10 of her students will drop out within the first six months.
  D)  most of them will probably end up in better shape than she is.

78)  An important psychological factor that helps people begin and maintain a regular exercise program is 78) ______
  A)  a sense of competitiveness.
  B)  a Type B behavior pattern.
  C)  a Type A behavior pattern.
  D)  a sense of self-efficacy.

79)  Which person would be better suited to a home-based exercise program that is planned by a consultant? 79) ______
  A)  Jaina, who is normal-weight and not stressed
  B)  Jacen, who loves to exercise
  C)  Jacob, who is overweight
  D)  Jennifer, who leads a very stress-free lifestyle

80)  Mrs. Olinghouse lives in a low-SES neighborhood and would like to begin exercising. She is LEAST likely to cite __________ as a major barrier to her goal. 80) ______
  A)  safety
  B)  access to exercise facilities
  C)  health problems
  D)  motivation

81)  When Nani's supervisor relocated, she was forced to assume the directorship of her division. Although the division was fraught with internal problems, Nani was committed to doing a good job, so she signed up for personnel and budget management workshops to make her a better administrator. No matter how difficult things got, Nani always looked at the situation as a challenge, rather than as a problem. After a year, the division was running better than ever. Because of the combination of traits exhibited, Nani could be characterized as displaying 81) ______
  A)  a Type B behavior pattern.
  B)  a Type A behavior pattern.
  C)  hardiness.
  D)  fluidity.

82)  An individual with a high level of hardiness is likely to use which type of coping strategy? 82) ______
  A)  Stress Identification Therapy (SIT)
  B)  excessive eating, drinking, or drug use
  C)  an emotion-centered coping strategy
  D)  a problem-centered coping strategy

83)  Cody just found out he received a negative appraisal from his boss at work. If Cody is a low-hardy individual, which of these responses is he most likely to take? 83) ______
  A)  getting drunk to forget about it
  B)  planning how to improve himself
  C)  writing a response for his job file
  D)  discussing the issue with his boss

84)  Erica is a middle-aged woman who feels confident, versatile, and able to resolve many of life's problems. She is likely to be rated by others as __________ than a man of the same age. 84) ______
  A)  less attractive but more competent
  B)  more trustworthy and productive
  C)  less attractive with more negative characteristics
  D)  conveying a stronger sense of leadership

85)  When people are judging the appearance, maturity, and power of young and middle-aged people from their photographs, which person is likely to give the LOWEST rating? 85) ______
  A)  a woman judging an older man
  B)  a woman judging a younger man
  C)  a man judging a younger woman
  D)  a man judging an older woman

86)  The ideal of a sexually attractive woman is characterized as __________ and represents the heart of the double standard of aging. 86) ______
  A)  young and sexually attractive
  B)  indecisive and dependent
  C)  passive and submissive
  D)  assertive and competent

87)  Past research results showed a pattern of intelligence declines in middle and late adulthood. Which of the following statements explains this pattern? 87) ______
  A)  The dramatic decreases in intelligence in late adulthood skewed the results, making nonexistent patterns appear during middle adulthood as well.
  B)  Age-related intelligence declines are a standard part of the aging process, as proven with past research.
  C)  Cohort effects, where younger generations benefitted from improved health and education, created the appearance of age-related intelligence declines.
  D)  Increased cognitive declines and incidence of Alzheimer's disease in older generations are responsible for the research findings.

88)  Mai Song prefers meeting with clients face-to-face, rather than by phone or written correspondence. Although her knowledge and experience in the field make her well-respected, it is her ability to successfully maneuver social situations and her interactions with clients that have made her successful. Mai Song has developed __________ intelligence. 88) ______
  A)  stored
  B)  crystallized
  C)  cohort
  D)  fluid

89)  Which of these tasks most clearly makes use of crystallized intelligence? 89) ______
  A)  creating unusual, challenging art work
  B)  learning to speak a new language
  C)  using the right words to express an idea
  D)  finding hidden figures in a drawing

90)  The ability to analyze information quickly and detect patterns in new information is called __________ intelligence. 90) ______
  A)  crystallized
  B)  fluid
  C)  creative
  D)  emotional

91)  Which of these tasks most clearly makes use of fluid intelligence? 91) ______
  A)  rapidly processing new information
  B)  winning the company spelling bee
  C)  deciding how to deal with a problem
  D)  using the right word to express an idea

92)  Which type of intelligence increases steadily throughout adulthood? 92) ______
  A)  short-term memory
  B)  crystallized intelligence
  C)  long-term memory
  D)  fluid intelligence

93)  Trends in both crystallized and fluid mental abilities reported from the Seattle Longitudinal Study show that intellectually, middle-aged adults 93) ______
  A)  are "in their prime," rather than "over the hill."
  B)  show sharp decrements in ability starting around age 40.
  C)  often overestimate their intellectual abilities, often with embarrassing results.
  D)  show steady increases in perceptual speed.

94)  Eighty-year-old Gladys has taken various tests of intelligence every 10 years for the last five decades. Based on information in your text, what changes would you anticipate for Gladys? 94) ______
  A)  Her spatial orientation scores will show little decline.
  B)  Gladys' inductive reasoning skills will show marked decline.
  C)  Her verbal ability scores will show little decline.
  D)  Gladys' verbal memory scores will show marked decreases.

95)  Many researchers believe that most or all cognitive changes in adulthood are based on 95) ______
  A)  society's bias against people who are older.
  B)  environmental influences such as pollution.
  C)  research that is flawed by poor designs.
  D)  a general slowing of the central nervous system.

96)  Basic information-processing skills decline throughout adulthood, but overall cognitive functioning remains quite steady. The author suggests that this apparent contradiction can be reconciled by noting that 96) ______
  A)  adults use stronger abilities to compensate for weaker ones.
  B)  basic information-processing skills don't affect most abilities.
  C)  cognitive declines are masked by social bias against older people.
  D)  declines occur, but only for highly practiced, automatic skills.

97)  An important way in which a person can maintain a high level of cognitive functioning well into old age is to 97) ______
  A)  get plenty of vitamins, especially Vitamin E.
  B)  rest the mind by not thinking too much or too hard.
  C)  constantly use and challenge cognitive skills.
  D)  eat "brain foods" such as fish and low-fat grains.

98)  Which person is more likely to maintain a high level of cognitive functioning well into late adulthood? 98) ______
  A)  Kevin, who prefers to watch television in his spare time
  B)  Charyss, who has diabetes
  C)  Devin, who has a flexible personality
  D)  Karyss, who is a divorcee

99)  Due to cohort effects, Dean is likely to score lower on various intelligence tests than his grandson J.T., who is a 15-year-old high school student. However, J.T. is UNLIKELY to outscore his grandfather on which test? 99) ______
  A)  numeric ability
  B)  verbal memory
  C)  spatial orientation
  D)  inductive reasoning

100)  James, age 20; Dylan, age 40; and Brandon, age 60 are all given simple reaction time tests. Based on research cited in your text, we can anticipate that 100) ______
  A)  James will have the fastest reaction times, beating Dylan and Brandon by nearly 10 seconds on each task.
  B)  Brandon will have the slowest reaction times, nearly 3 seconds slower than Dylan and 6 seconds slower than James.
  C)  Dylan will have the fastest reaction times, beating James by 2-3 seconds and Brandon by nearly 5 seconds.
  D)  Brandon will have the slowest reaction times, but only about 1 second slower than James'.

101)  The viewpoint that the general slowing of cognitive processes is due to breaks in the connections in the brain, which must then be bypassed, is called the __________ view. 101) ______
  A)  path construction
  B)  neural network
  C)  information-loss
  D)  interconnectionist

102)  The viewpoint that the general slowing of cognitive processes is due to an increase in the rate at which information degrades as it is transferred within the brain is called the __________ view. 102) ______
  A)  information-loss
  B)  signal breakdown
  C)  neural network
  D)  over-copying

103)  As an older person's neural processing slows down, the person will often minimize the effects this has by 103) ______
  A)  pushing to complete tasks as quickly as possible.
  B)  concentrating more on new, unfamiliar tasks.
  C)  using experience to plan further ahead in a task.
  D)  withdrawing and doing fewer and fewer activities.

104)  Bridget is used to multitasking. As she grows older, she will find 104) ______
  A)  it harder to do two things at one time.
  B)  that she slows down, but is able to coordinate the tasks better.
  C)  that she tends to switch back and forth more quickly between the tasks.
  D)  it easier to do two things at one time.

105)  Riley works in a large business where he has to juggle many activities simultaneously. As he has gotten older, he has increasing difficulty concentrating on his work, due to the many interruptions he must endure. Riley is demonstrating age-related declines in 105) ______
  A)  perseverance processing.
  B)  code-switching.
  C)  cognitive inhibition.
  D)  attentional persistence.

106)  Fifty-five year-old Heartley wants to improve her ability to divide her attention between two tasks, focus on relevant information and switch between mental operations. What can you recommend to help her achieve her goal? 106) ______
  A)  Receive training and practice in these skills.
  B)  Begin language therapy.
  C)  Play card games like concentration to improve her focus.
  D)  Begin hormone therapy.

107)  As Clarissa gets older, which type of memory activity will be the least likely to suffer? 107) ______
  A)  memorization of list items
  B)  matching names with faces of people she has met
  C)  memorization of digits such as phone numbers
  D)  memorization of prose

108)  Sixty-two-year-old Hudson is given a list of words to memorize that includes trout and flounder. Hudson will 108) ______
  A)  rehearse the words less, and will not immediately access the category of "fish".
  B)  elaborate the words more by associating each word with a specific characteristic.
  C)  rehearse the words more, and rely on categorization to help the memorization process.
  D)  immediately organize the words based on categories.

109)  A college class is given two assignments: a pressured, classroom-like condition and a self-paced condition. Which of the following is likely to occur? 109) ______
  A)  Middle-aged students will show performance declines only in the pressured condition.
  B)  Middle-aged students will out-perform younger students in both conditions.
  C)  Middle-aged students will show performance declines only in the self-paced condition.
  D)  Middle-aged students will refuse to do the pressured condition.

110)  When driving a car, Mario uses __________ knowledge. 110) ______
  A)  procedural
  B)  active
  C)  metacognitive
  D)  fluid

111)  Maria has trouble remembering where she parks her car. Subsequently, she parks in the same area of the parking garage every day at work. She is using 111) ______
  A)  metacognitive knowledge.
  B)  procedural knowledge.
  C)  general knowledge.
  D)  common sense.

112)  Washington Middle School was known for its poor test scores, large numbers of violent incidents, and a teaching force comprised mostly of long-term substitutes. Roberta was hired as the new principal and immediately launched an action plan to address these issues. Within 2 years she had recruited highly qualified teachers, reduced disruptive behaviors, and raised test scores substantially. Roberta, like many middle-aged adults, shows increased cognitive abilities with respect to 112) ______
  A)  fluid intelligence.
  B)  practical problem solving.
  C)  general processing speed.
  D)  overall reaction times.

113)  The term __________ refers to an extensive, highly organized, and integrated knowledge base that can be used to support a high level of performance. 113) ______
  A)  expertise
  B)  experience
  C)  knowledge
  D)  intuition

114)  Which person is most likely to have reached the height of expertise in any particular area? 114) ______
  A)  Ted, a 75-year-old
  B)  Tom, a 15-year-old
  C)  Tonika, a 24-year-old
  D)  Tennyson, a 55-year-old

115)  Expertise tends to develop 115) ______
  A)  in those from high SES backgrounds.
  B)  at all levels in any field of endeavor.
  C)  in those who are highly educated.
  D)  in those at the top of administrative ladders.

116)  You must choose which of three candidates to hire for a job: a young adult, a middle-aged adult, and an older adult. They all have similar training, experience, and pay expectations. Research suggests that which of these will be the most effective employee? 116) ______
  A)  the younger adult
  B)  the middle-aged adult
  C)  there is no way to tell
  D)  the older adult

117)  Compared to younger individuals, when solving an everyday problem, middle-aged adults will 117) ______
  A)  make decisions based on emotion.
  B)  solve it through institutional guessing.
  C)  consult with other people.
  D)  select better strategies.

118)  Cynthia is a writer who feels that her work steadily improved during her forties and fifties. She is most likely to explain this as the result of 118) ______
  A)  carefully balancing work and family.
  B)  intense competition with other artists her age.
  C)  a positive career change.
  D)  extensive planning and molding of her stories.

119)  George is a famous Hollywood actor. During his early adulthood years, he prioritized work that would bring him recognition and money. Now, in his fifties, he wants to focus on making movies that can positively influence the way people think and act. George's transition 119) ______
  A)  will reflect less creative works than his earlier years.
  B)  reflects an egocentrism of early adulthood, despite his age.
  C)  will probably result in more poetic works or unusual products.
  D)  reflects a typical change in the quality of creativity during middle adulthood.

120)  Perhaps the best one-word summary for the cognitive abilities of middle adulthood is 120) ______
  A)  speed.
  B)  specialization.
  C)  creativity.
  D)  decline.

121)  The relationship between a person's ability to think flexibly and hold a job that requires complex cognitive skills can best be summarized by saying that 121) ______
  A)  flexible thinking makes a person select a complex job.
  B)  having a complex job makes a person think flexibly.
  C)  there is no relationship between these two factors.
  D)  each of these factors has an influence on the other one.

122)  Zack has a stimulating, nonroutine job that is intellectually demanding. During his leisure time, Zack is likely to 122) ______
  A)  select pursuits in which he supervises younger people, such as youth group minister or counselor.
  B)  gravitate towards physically demanding, and slightly dangerous, leisure pursuits like rock climbing or dirt biking.
  C)  prefer nonstimulating leisure pursuits, like watching television, which allows him to "rest his brain".
  D)  seek out stimulating leisure pursuits which also foster cognitive flexibility.

123)  Why are parents who are flexible, abstract thinkers likely to have children with similar traits? 123) ______
  A)  They tend to value self-direction for themselves and their children and are likely to pass their cognitive preferences on.
  B)  Flexibility and abstract thought are genetic traits.
  C)  They tend to have more children than concrete thinkers, increasing the probability that their offspring will inherit the same traits.
  D)  Flexible thinkers from high-SES backgrounds can provide proper nutrition for their children, which is essential for brain development necessary for abstract thought.

124)  The impact of a challenging job on cognitive growth is greatest for 124) ______
  A)  those in administrative or supervisory positions.
  B)  individuals of any age.
  C)  people living in Japan or Poland.
  D)  people in their twenties and thirties.

125)  Dr. Hung teaches a course for older adults who are either entering college for the first time, or returning after a long hiatus. The purpose of the course is to help them acclimate to the demands of college coursework in the 21st century. If Dr. Hung's students are statistically average, then the majority of them are 125) ______
  A)  ethnic minorities.
  B)  older workers who were laid off due to age discrimination.
  C)  women.
  D)  men.

126)  Which person is likely to feel the most anxious about going to college? 126) ______
  A)  Skipper, a 20-year-old college junior
  B)  Mary Ann, an 18-year-old college freshman
  C)  Thurston, a 55-year-old returning male student
  D)  Ginger, a 45-year-old returning female student

127)  Why do mature-age women who return to school take longer to finish their degrees? 127) ______
  A)  They are often unable to decide upon a degree, so end up taking additional courses as they switch majors.
  B)  Multiple demands on their time interfere with course work.
  C)  Many attend college for personal fulfillment, so they are not under a "time clock" to finish the degree.
  D)  Because of the discrimination they experience from male professors, they often drop courses and then take them again later with different, more supportive instructors.

128)  The most important factor in the success of an adult college student is 128) ______
  A)  receiving social support.
  B)  studying at regular times.
  C)  a high intelligence level.
  D)  taking a full course load.

129)  Nontraditional students report a strong desire for help in 129) ______
  A)  effective time management strategies.
  B)  finding high-quality daycare.
  C)  academic advising and finding jobs appropriate to their talents.
  D)  settling on career goals.

130)  Which student would possibly need help adjusting to styles of learning that are at odds with her cultural background? 130) ______
  A)  Trisha, a single mother of two
  B)  Emily, a third-generation college student
  C)  Mae Ling, a Native Hawaiian student
  D)  Julia, a foreign exchange student from England

131)  A benefit to society at large of having many adult students in college courses is that it tends to 131) ______
  A)  produce a calmer, more mature college atmosphere.
  B)  provide more work for college teachers and staff.
  C)  reduce negative stereotypes about older adults.
  D)  create an economic boom when they get better jobs.

ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.
132)  Describe the symptoms most often associated with menopause.  

133)  Discuss alternatives to HRT for women experiencing the negative physical symptoms of menopause, and their effectiveness when compared with hormone therapy.  

134)  Discuss the three types of mutations that can contribute to cancer.  

135)  Explain the combined gender-racial bias that can dangerously impact African-American women with heart disease.  

136)  Discuss the gender differences related to osteoporosis, and mortality rates associated with the disease.  

137)  What type of exercise format would be appropriate for a beginning exerciser who is normal weight and leads a highly stressful life? Justify your answer.  

138)  Describe the gender and cohort difference in intellectual development during middle adulthood.  

139)  Describe how the quality of creativity changes from early to middle adulthood.  

140)  Discuss differences in the hearing loss between men and women, and prevention measures that are currently being implemented to address this issue.  

141)  Central State College wants to provide supports for mature adults who are returning to school. What recommendations could you make, based upon information in your text?