Teenage Wasteland


1)The author's friends, most born in the 1950s, viewed the suicides as?


2)Why was the author angry about how the suicides were portrayed?


3)According to the author, for today's teens, "doing it" means what?


4)Teenage suicide was a virtually nonexistent category prior to what decade


5)At the time of the Bergenfield suicide pact, suicide was the ________ leading cause of death among young people.(what decade?)


6)Throughout the ________, teenage suicide clusters appeared across the country.

(what decade?)


7)What reasons have the author and experts given for the increase in teenage suicide? Do you agree? Disagree?


Body Ritual Among the Nacirema


8)According to Nacirema mythology, their nation was originated by a culture hero, whose real name is _________ ?


9)Among the Nacirema, the latipso refers to a14) _________


10)When Horace Miner speaks of the "listener" in Nacirema culture, he is referring to a_________


11)Anthropologist Horace Miner wrote "Body Ritual Among the Nacirema" in order to help the reader "step back from our own society." What is meant by this?


12)What is the latipso in Nacirema culture? What does it signify? In describing what goes on in the latipso, what is Miner's principal message about American life?


Cultural Obsessions with Thinness


13)According to the American Anorexia/Bulimia Association, 7 million women and 1 million men suffer from eating disorders. An estimated one thousand die from ________ every year.


14)The ________ model adopts medical treatment strategies that may disempower and traumatize women.


15)According to feminists, ________ is a key reason why eating problems predominate among women.


16)According to Thomas Silber, many well trained professionals have either misdiagnosed or delayed their diagnoses of eating problems among African American and Latina women due to_________


17)According to the author, ________ of the women in her study have had eating disorders for more than half their lives.


18)Among the women the author interviewed in her study on eating disorders, ________ percent were survivors of sexual abuse.


19)Discuss the relationship between sexual abuse and eating disorders.


20)Explain how racism and class standing can contribute to eating disorders.


Manifesto of the Communist Party


21)The thinking of Marx and Engels has been instrumental in the development of the ________ paradigm in sociology


22)According to Marx and Engels, the history of all hitherto existing society is the history of _________


23)Marx and Engels referred to the "ruling class" as the_________


24)According to Marx and Engels, owing to the extensive use of machinery and to division of labor, the work of the proletarians _________


25)According to Marx and Engels, of all the classes that stand face-to-face with the bourgeoisie today, the ________ alone is a really revolutionary class.


26)What is the bourgeoisie? What is the proletariat?



Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft


27)________ is rooted in the rural, kinship-based life of the past.37) _________

A)GemeinschaftB) Gesellschaft


28)Gesellschaft is ________ life.


29)Gemeinschaft ________ implies only cooperation and coordinated action for a common goal.


30)________ Gemeinschaft signifies a common relation to, and share in, human beings themselves.


31)In Gemeinschaft ________, a common relation is established through collective ownership of land.


32)The theory of ________ deals with the artificial construction of an aggregate of human beings which superficially resembles the ________ in so far as individuals live and dwell together peacefully


33)According to the author, Gemeinschaft should be understood as a living organism and Gesellschaft as a mechanical aggregate and artifact. What does the author mean by this statement?


34)Based on the author's discussion, would life in New York City be Gemeinschaft or Gesellschaft? Which would it be in a Pennsylvania Amish community? Why?


Unmarried with Children


35)In 1950, only ________ in twenty American children were born to an unmarried mother.


36)According to the authors, "I want to have a baby with you" is _________


37)When surveyed just after a child's birth, ________ in ten unmarried parents say they are still together.


38)Demographers still project that more than seven in ten women who had a child outside of marriage will_________


39)According to the authors, the sharp decline in marriage in impoverished areas is due to what?


40)Because poor women revere marriage, they feel that_________


41)Why would the stigma of a failed marriage be far worse than an out-of-wedlock birth for poor couples like Jen and Rick?


Boyhood, Organized Sports, and the Construction of Masculinities


42)The author views gender identity as_________ .


43)According to the author, when asked to recall why they initially got into playing sports, many men responded that playing sports was _________


44)According to the men in the study, older brothers and uncles served as _________


45)According to the author, a boy's introduction to organized sports is often made by fathers who_________


46)According to Messner, the sense of commitment that young boys eventually make to the development of athletic careers is best explained _________


47)According to Piaget (1965) and Lever (1976), girls tend to have more ________ orientations to the rules of the game, while boys tend to have ________ orientation to the rules.


48)Discuss how many of the men in the study saw athletics as a way to connect with their fathers.


49)What does the statement "Though the separate (and unequal) gendered worlds of boys and girls came to appear as 'natural,' they were in fact socially constructed" mean?


Socialization and the Power of Advertising


50)According to the author, when they paraded bra- and panty-clad Victoria's Secret models across the TV screen for 30 seconds during the Super Bowl, ________ people turned away from the game to log on to the Victoria's Secret website.


51)Chafing under advertising restrictions in other media, ________ have discovered they can find and woo young people without any problem on the Web.


52)Online advertising targets children as young as ________ in an attempt to develop "brand loyalty" as early as possible.


53)________ is one of the few industrialized nations that thinks children are legitimate targets for advertisers.


54)According to the Council for Aid to Education, the total amount corporations spend on "educational" programs from kindergarten through high school has increased from $5 million in 1965 to ________ today.


55)According to Gerbner, in a typical week the average viewer of prime-time television drama will see an average of ________ acts of violence


56)What do advertisers mean by "brand loyalty"? What methods are they using to target young children?


57)How do advertisers use the Internet to circumvent regulations against targeting children?


You Just Donít Understand: Men and Women in Conversation


58)Communications researchers Barbara and Gene Eakins tape recorded and studied seven university faculty meetings. They found that the men's turns ranged from 10.66 to 17.07 seconds, while the women's longest turns ranged from ________ seconds.


59)Linguist Marjorie Swacker recorded question-and-answer sessions at academic conferences. Women were highly visible as speakers at the conferences studied, but when it came to volunteering and being called on to ask questions, women contributed what percent?


60)For most women, the language of conversation is primarily a language of_________


61)From childhood, men learn to use talking as a way to get and keep _________


62)For males, talk _________


63)For women, talk_________


64)Compare and contrast public and private speaking. Why do men prefer public speaking, while women prefer private speaking?


65)According to the author, men tend to think that a woman who objects to their reading the morning paper is trying to keep them from doing something essential and harmless. What, according to the author, do women believe is taking place?


66)Based on the author's discussion, discuss why women find public speaking so difficult.


On Being Sane in Insane Places


67)In his article, David L. Rosenhan refers to the eight sane people who gained secret admission to twelve different hospitals as _________


68)According to Rosenhan's discussion who detected the pseudopatients as sane?


69)According to Rosenhan, the failure of hospital staffers to detect sanity during the course of hospitalization may be due to the fact that physicians operated with a strong bias toward what statisticians call the ________ error.


70)Which of the following, according to Rosenhan, what is a source of depersonalization in mental hospitals?


71)Once Rosenhan's "pseudo patients" were admitted to the mental hospitals, how were their subsequent behaviors understood in terms of the label "mentally ill"? Was this label removed when the pseudo patients were discharged?


73)Rosenhan refers to the "stickiness of psychodiagnostic labels." What does he mean by this characterization?


74)Rosenhan indicates that patients in mental hospitals are powerless and undergo tremendous depersonalization. Explain why this is the case.


Understanding Sexual Orientation


75)Scientists and laymen alike assume that:


A)everyone is born homosexual and learns to be heterosexual.

B)there are persons who are "heterosexual" and persons who are "homosexual."

C)we are all born bisexual.

D)everyone is born heterosexual.


76)Many believe that ________ are an insignificant class who occupy an intermediate position between other sexual classifications.


77)According to the authors, sexual orientation is implied from the time of birth; one is fated to be one thing or the other, and ________ change his pattern in the course of a lifetime.


78)Many psychiatrists believe that the preference for sexual partners of a particular sex is merely a secondary manifestation of something that lies much deeper in the individual. They refer to this as "the ________ personality


79)It is commonly believed that homosexual males are_________


80)Those who engage in both heterosexual and homosexual activities are considered to be_________


81)According to the authors, it is commonly believed that homosexual males are rarely robust physically. Discuss the factors that have led to this common belief.


82)Explain why psychiatrists discuss the "homosexual personality." What factors do you believe led to this label?


83)Discuss the authors' contention that the heterosexuality or homosexuality of many individuals is not an all-or-none proposition.


Homosexuality in Cross Cultural Perspective


84)Very little is known about homosexual behavior in the rest of the world. This lack of knowledge stems from __________________


85)According to Monroe et al. (1969), a number of societies have what they call



86)In __(where)______, the Zpotec Indians believe that "effeminate males" are born not made.


87)Machismo refers to ________


88)In Mexico, the beliefs linking effeminate males with homosexuality are culturally transmitted by________


89)From a cultural point of view, deviations from sexual mores in a given society can occur as a result of ________


90)Discuss how, as a consequence of the high status given to manliness, Mexican males, from birth onward, are expected to behave in as manly a way as possible.


Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies


91)The ________, both men and women, display a personality that would be considered maternal in its parental aspects, and feminine in its sexual aspects.109) ________


92)The ________ are aggressive, positively sexed individuals, with maternal cherishing aspects of personality at a minimum.


93)According to the author, the differences in personalities of the Arapesh, Mundugumor and Tchambuli are due to: ________


94)There appears to be ________ basic temperament variation among the Arapesh and among the Mundugumor, although the violent man is a misfit in the first society and a leader in the second.


95)In societies based upon elaborate ideas of rank, members of the ________ will be permitted, even compelled, to display a pride and a sensitivity to insult.


96)The ________ have at least made the point of sex-difference; they have used the obvious fact of sex as an organizing point for the formation of social personality, even though they seem to us to have reversed the normal picture.


97)Discuss the hypothesis advanced by Ruth Benedict in her Patterns of Culture.


98)Discuss the reasons why the Arapesh and the Mundugumor have not made any attitude specific for one sex.


Night to His Day: The Social Construction of Gender


99)According to the author, ________ starts with assignment to a sex category on the basis of what the genitalia look like at birth.


100)Some societies have three genders. These are: ___________________


102)At ________, sex characteristics become evident, and most societies put children through their most important rites of passage.


103)Discuss how gender helps humans organize their lives.


104)In what ways do parents create a gendered world for their newborns?


105)Explain what the author means by gender being a form of "structured inequality."


The Soul of Black Folk


106)According to Du Bois, African Americans develop a ________, seeing themselves as Americans, but always gazing back at themselves through the eyes of the white majority, as people set below and apart by color.128)Who was the pioneering U.S. sociologist and first African American to receive a doctorate from Harvard University


107)In a historical context, Du Bois describes the American Negro's longing to "merge his double self into a better and truer self." By this, the author describes the African American's desire to ____________.


108)When did W. E. Burghart Du Bois write his book, The Souls of Black Folks?


109)In his article, Du Bois alludes to the "double consciousness" of African Americans. What does he mean by this?


110)Du Bois writes of the "...American Negro's longing to merge his double self into a better and truer self." Describe what this self concept consists of.


111)Technically, the Emancipation Proclamation of 1863 "freed the slaves." Describe how Du Bois saw the effects of this legislation.


Controlling Images and Black Womenís Oppression


112)According to the cult of true womanhood, are the cardinal virtues?


113)According to Collins, the ________ image is important because it aims to shape Black women's behavior as mothers.


114)African American women may play the mammy role in paid work settings because



115)William E.B. Du Bois and E. Franklin Frazier saw the so-called matriarchal families as an outcome of ________


116)During slavery, the ________ image portrayed Black women as more suitable for having children than white women.


117)The image of the ________ provides ideological justifications for interlocking systems of race, gender, and class oppression.141) ________


118)List and discuss the controlling images applied to African American women.


119)Discuss the modern Black matriarchy thesis. According to this theory, how do modern Black women fail to fulfill their traditional "womanly" duties?


120)Discuss the function of the "Jezebel" image of Black women.


How Did Jews Become White Folks?


121)Anti-Semitism in the United States was at its peak in the________


122)Immigrants and their children made up more than ________ percent of the population of most of the country's large cities.


123)The Red Scare of 1919 clearly linked the anti-immigrant to the anti-________ sentiment.


124)The most massive affirmative action program in U.S. history was/is_______.


125)According to the author, in Boston just over ________ percent of Jewish men were doctors before the war, compared to ________ of the postwar generation.


126)Postwar expansion made college accessible to the mass of Euromales in general and to Jews in particular, resulting in________


127)What did Kenneth Roberts and others mean by the "mongrelization" of real Americans?


128)Discuss the methods through which scientific racism sanctified that notion that real Americans were white and real whites came from northwest Europe.


129)Discuss the changes that allowed Euroethnics to become middle-class.


Alienated Labor


130)According to Karl Marx, the division of society into the two classes of ________ and ________ must disappear.


131)According to Marx, the devaluation of the human world increases in direct relation to the increase in value of the ________


132)According to Marx, the more the worker expends himself in work________


133)For Marx, the ________ of the worker in his product means not only that his labor becomes an object and assumes an external existence, but that it exists independently, outside himself, standing opposed to him as an autonomous power.________


134)According to Marx, within the capitalist economic system, the process of production denies rather than affirms human nature, and the result is________


135)Discuss the different ways that labor within capitalism alienates the worker.


136)Compare the alienation of human labor from the two aspects mentioned by Marx: the relationship of the worker to the product of labor as an alien object which dominates him; and the relationship of labor to the act of production within labor.


137)Is work inevitably alienation according to Marx? Discuss how work within a capitalist economy produces "alienated labor."


When Work Disappears


138)In the famous black-belt neighborhood of Washington Park on Chicago's South Side, a majority of adults had jobs in 1950; by 1990 only one in ________ worked in a typical week


139)Neighborhoods plagued by high levels of ________ are more likely to experience low levels of social organization.


140)According to Wilson, only ________ of the black families whose children live with them in inner-city neighborhoods in Chicago are husband-wife families today.


141)The mismatch between residence and the location of jobs is a problem for some workers in America because, unlike Europe, public transportation is ________


142)According to Wilson, a neo-WPA program of employment would________


143)According to Wilson, increasing the ________ would have an enormous positive impact on the social organization of ghetto neighborhoods.


144)According to Wilson, the public debate around the question of the disappearance of work is not productive because it seeks to assign blame, rather than dealing with the issues. What does he mean by this?


145)Discuss how redlining contributes to the deterioration of neighborhoods.


146)Discuss how the system itself promotes the welfare state.


Education and Inequality


147)Denial of "________" is perhaps the single most consistent outcome of the education offered to poor children in the schools of our large cities.


148)While average 1987 expenditures per pupil in the suburbs of New York were $11,000, expenditures per pupil in the city of New York were________


149)According to the author, Public School 261 in District 10 has the capacity for 900 students, but there were ________ students enrolled.


150)According to the principal of Public School 261, there are ________ computers for its 1,300 students.


151)According to the principal of Public School 24, the reason for the 130 children in "special classes" can be traced to________


152)Discuss the inequities between Public School 261 and Public School 24. What message do these inequities send?


153)At Public School 24, the majority of non-white students are placed in "special classes" which have less equipment and smaller rooms. What do you think is the reason for the discrepancy between the mainstream classes and "special classes" at Public School 24?


154)How do the parents of the children attending Public School 24 assist in providing a quality education for their children?




Anomy and Modern Life


155)According to Weber, the world has become ________


156)The question, What shall we do, and, how shall we arrange our lives, is referred to by Weber as ________ question.


157)For Weber, ________ is a fraction, the most important fraction, of the process of intellectualization.


158)For Weber, science________


159)Explain what Max Weber means by "the disenchantment of modern life."


160)What is "Tolstoi's question"? Why is science not in a position to answer it?


161)What does Weber see as the great burden of living in a modern society? What comforts of the past are less available to modern people?