Chapter 11 - Physical and Cognitive Development in Adolesence

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 
1)  Margaret Mead's view of adolescence was indicative of the __________ perspective. 1) ______
  A)  behavioral
  B)  Freudian
  C)  social
  D)  Piagetian

2)  Which of the following statements is true of physical skill in adolescence? 2) ______
  A)  Low performing girls have skills equal to high performing boys.
  B)  Few girls perform as well as the average boy.
  C)  Boys and girls are evenly matched.
  D)  Girls perform better in athletics until about age 15, when boys surpass them.

3)  Todd is a star high school athlete, who has recently exhibited severe mood swings and aggressiveness. An initial health screening also indicates that Todd has acne and high blood pressure. Todd is exhibiting symptoms indicative of 3) ______
  A)  typical adolescent stress.
  B)  anabolic steroid use.
  C)  lack of sleep.
  D)  a previously undetected traumatic brain injury, probably acquired during football.

4)  Which of the following statements about adolescent physical fitness is INACCURATE? 4) ______
  A)  Athletics provide important lessons in teamwork, problem solving, and assertiveness.
  B)  Activity rates of North American youths decline over the teenage years.
  C)  Sports and exercise influence cognitive development.
  D)  The majority of North American teenagers are active enough for good health.

5)  The major factor that makes girls in one region of the world reach menarche earlier than those in another region is most likely their 5) ______
  A)  physical health.
  B)  educational levels.
  C)  genetic differences.
  D)  social attitudes.

6)  How does sleep rebound sustain the sleep problems of adolescents? 6) ______
  A)  They purposely sleep less one night in an attempt to fall asleep earlier the next, but homework and other evening activities interfere, resulting in even more lost sleep.
  B)  They sleep more on weekends, leading to difficulty falling asleep on subsequent evenings.
  C)  Teenagers take over-the-counter sleep medications in an attempt to get a better night's sleep, but have to wake up less than the medication-recommended eight hours later, resulting in drug-induced sleep problems.
  D)  Teenagers who sleep later in the mornings end up staying awake later into the night, which develops into a more problematic sleep cycle.

7)  Parent-child conflicts are a modern substitute for the children leaving home at puberty. This __________ is a substitute for the actual physical departure that takes place in nonindustrialized cultures. 7) ______
  A)  psychological distancing
  B)  greatly under reported phenomenon
  C)  highly stressful period
  D)  assertion of adult roles by adolescents

8)  Which of the following are most likely to have a positive body image in adolescence? 8) ______
  A)  late maturing boys and early maturing girls
  B)  early maturing boys and late maturing girls
  C)  early maturing boys and girls
  D)  late maturing boys and girls

9)  One of the problems associated with early physical maturation in both sexes is that early maturing boys and girls 9) ______
  A)  balance this with delays in their cognitive development.
  B)  are usually rejected by the adults that they depend on.
  C)  develop negative attitudes toward their physical appearance.
  D)  often associate with older teens who lead them into trouble.

10)  Which girl is LEAST likely to develop anorexia nervosa? 10) ______
  A)  Jasmine, who is African-American
  B)  Sara Marie, who is Caucasian-American
  C)  Lupe, who is Hispanic
  D)  Sue Ling, who is Asian-American

11)  Which pair has the emotional characteristics common among parents of anorexic teenagers? 11) ______
  A)  permissive mothers and uninvolved fathers
  B)  permissive mothers, highly competitive fathers
  C)  divorced parents where the mother is overwhelmed and the father is largely absent
  D)  overprotective and controlling mothers, emotionally distant fathers

12)  Ten girls with anorexia nervosa receive hospitalization and family therapy. How many can be expected to recover fully? 12) ______
  A)  3
  B)  10
  C)  5
  D)  1

13)  Which statement below accurately depicts the difference in factors between anorexia nervosa and bulimia? 13) ______
  A)  Bulimics generally come from higher-income families than anorexics.
  B)  Anorexics have overprotective and controlling parents while bulimics have disengaged and emotionally unavailable parents.
  C)  Bulimia typically affects African Americans more than other ethnic groups.
  D)  Bulimia is a much rarer disorder than anorexia.

14)  Compared to other cultures, sexual attitudes in North America are 14) ______
  A)  relatively restrictive.
  B)  have not been studied.
  C)  more advanced.
  D)  very open.

15)  The messages about sexual activity that teenagers get from parents, other adults and from modern media 15) ______
  A)  tend to promote early sexual activity.
  B)  are contradictory.
  C)  usually include information on responsible behavior.
  D)  often include information about pregnancy prevention and sexually transmitted diseases.

16)  The higher rate of sexual activity among African-American teenagers is largely due to the influence of 16) ______
  A)  poverty.
  B)  different cultural values.
  C)  a higher proportion of early-maturing teenagers.
  D)  extended family members.

17)  After controlling for family background and personal characteristics, which of the following factors predicts higher rates of intercourse and pregnancy among adolescent girls? 17) ______
  A)  early dating activity
  B)  higher educational aspirations
  C)  early and prolonged father absence
  D)  primary caregiver who is not a parent

18)  Which of the following statements is a true statement regarding adolescents and homosexuality? 18) ______
  A)  Many heterosexual adolescents participate in homosexual acts.
  B)  Attraction to members of the same sex is limited to gay and lesbian teenagers.
  C)  Most homosexual adolescents are "gender deviant" in the way they dress.
  D)  Most homosexual adolescents are "gender deviant" in the way they behave.

19)  Within a group of 30 sexually active adolescents, about how many will contract an STD this year? 19) ______
  A)  5
  B)  15
  C)  20
  D)  10

20)  Teenagers who are at the highest risk for sexually transmitted diseases are 20) ______
  A)  high-SES teens who are future oriented.
  B)  high-achieving teens whose parents are demanding.
  C)  low-SES teens who feel a sense of hopelessness.
  D)  mid-SES teens whose parents are very permissive.

21)  Many gay men and women first sensed their sexual orientation between the ages of __________ when they discovered __________. 21) ______
  A)  12 and 14; strong attractions to members of the same sex.
  B)  3 and 4; preference for their same-sex parent.
  C)  6 and 12; their play interests were more like those of the other gender.
  D)  6 and 12; preferences for quiet activities and hobbies.

22)  Teenage pregnancies are a far greater problem today than several decades ago because 22) ______
  A)  the stigma of teenage parenthood is much worse.
  B)  federal benefits for teenage mothers have been cut drastically.
  C)  adolescents are far less likely to marry before childbirth, increasing the negative consequences for both mother and baby.
  D)  the majority of pregnancies end in abortion.

23)  Which adolescent mother will probably display better parenting skills? 23) ______
  A)  Maecie, who establishes her own residence with the help of family
  B)  Maria, who lives with her extended family for several years after the birth
  C)  Mira, who lives in a group home with other teenage mothers
  D)  Margie, who lives with her boyfriend

24)  By the end of high school, 50 percent of teenagers have experimented with illegal drugs. These numbers 24) ______
  A)  are considered to be low estimates, as many teenagers do not accurately report their drug use.
  B)  represent a substantial decline since the mid-1990s, probably resulting from increased focus on the hazards of drug use.
  C)  are considered to be overly high estimates, as many teenagers "fake" data on questionnaires in an attempt to appear more involved than they really are.
  D)  show a substantial increase since the mid-1990s, despite decreased focus on the hazards of drug use.

25)  Teenager A lives in the United States. Teenager B lives in Europe. Based on research on drug use, which of the following can you infer? 25) ______
  A)  Teenager A is less likely to use tobacco and alcohol than Teenager B.
  B)  The rates of drug use are similar for the two teenagers.
  C)  Teenager B is more likely to use illegal drugs.
  D)  Teenager B is more likely to use tobacco, alcohol, and illegal drugs than Teenager A.

26)  __________ adolescents are able to come up with new, general logical rules through internal reflection. 26) ______
  A)  Formal operational
  B)  Concrete propositional
  C)  Concrete operational
  D)  Formal propositional

27)  In preparing for a competition, 12-year-old Robi tries to think of all possible factors that might affect the distance that his remote-controlled car can jump off a ramp. He lists them and then tests them in an orderly fashion. Robi is using 27) ______
  A)  cognitive intuition.
  B)  concrete propositional thought.
  C)  hypothetico-deductive reasoning.
  D)  operational thought.

28)  The primary factor that keeps college students and adults from displaying formal operational thinking in some situations is that 28) ______
  A)  they do not have enough experience in those situations.
  B)  their cognitive development is delayed by biological factors.
  C)  there is a cultural stigma associated with formal operations.
  D)  this kind of thinking is not especially useful in our society.

29)  Which individual is least likely to master formal operational tasks at all? 29) ______
  A)  Ghenniaa, the chief of a tribal society in Tonga
  B)  Gus, a high school student in Tonga
  C)  George, an American high school student
  D)  Grady, the custodian at George's high school

30)  The imaginary audience characteristic of adolescent thinking is most likely responsible for adolescents' 30) ______
  A)  ability to solve problems with many variables.
  B)  greater willingness to engage in risky behavior.
  C)  increased argumentativeness with their parents.
  D)  extreme sensitivity to public criticism.

31)  Carl is sure that his romantic passion for his girl friend, his deep concern over the poor and homeless, and his poetic appreciation of nature are far beyond anything anyone has felt before. This thinking is characterized by 31) ______
  A)  the personal fable.
  B)  the imaginary audience.
  C)  cognitive dissonance.
  D)  juvenile obsession.

32)  Kasim takes more sexual risks, uses more drugs, and commits more delinquent acts than his peers. Which of the following sets of scores can contribute to this behavior? 32) ______
  A)  low personal-fable, low sensation-seeking
  B)  high personal-fable, high sensation-seeking
  C)  low personal-fable, high sensation-seeking
  D)  high personal-fable, low sensation-seeking

33)  Fourteen-year-old Liam has become increasingly critical of his parents and siblings, which has created a great deal of family tension. This is typical of the __________ that manifests during the development of abstract reasoning. 33) ______
  A)  imaginary audience
  B)  idealism
  C)  personal fable
  D)  metacognition

34)  Sex differences in mathematical skills 34) ______
  A)  are primarily due to social stereotypes.
  B)  are apparent by first grade.
  C)  are not biologically based.
  D)  do not become evident until the secondary years.

35)  An important factor that contributes to the gender difference in mathematical performance is that 35) ______
  A)  girls think of math as a masculine domain.
  B)  boys think math is less useful to their future lives.
  C)  girls better understand the practical importance of math.
  D)  girls believe you don't have to work hard at math.

36)  Which two factors predict higher scores on complex math problems? 36) ______
  A)  prenatal hormones and environmental stimulation
  B)  playing video games and engaging in manipulative activities
  C)  spatial ability and self-confidence
  D)  strong mental rotation and spatial perception abilities

37)  One critical factor in reducing sex differences in math and science is that 37) ______
  A)  early reading intervention efforts for boys have increased their interest in linguistically-based subjects and subsequently decreased their interest in math and science.
  B)  many high schools are now segregating their science and math courses by gender.
  C)  public awareness campaigns focused on high paying careers in the sciences have increased female enrollments in advanced placement courses at the high school level.
  D)  boys and girls are taking advanced levels of high school math and science in equal proportions.

38)  Sex differences in computer usage indicate that 38) ______
  A)  Boys show greater usage when software programs include background music.
  B)  Boys focus more on text messaging and using the Internet for research purposes.
  C)  Girls focus more on e-mail, word processing, and completing homework assignments.
  D)  Girls more often write computer programs and use graphics software.

39)  Compared to boys, girls have a more difficult time with the elementary to junior high transition because it coincides with the onset of 39) ______
  A)  puberty and dating.
  B)  formal operational thought.
  C)  increased academic pressure.
  D)  the imaginary audience.

40)  Which parents will probably have teenagers with superior school performance? 40) ______
  A)  the Bates, who have an inconsistent parenting style
  B)  the Berrys, who have an authoritative parenting style
  C)  the Kidmans, who have a permissive parenting style
  D)  the Roberts, who have an authoritarian parenting style

41)  Which statement about parent-school partnerships is accurate? 41) ______
  A)  Home-school communication is less important during middle and high school than during the elementary years.
  B)  High achieving students typically have parents who keep tabs on their progress and communicate with teachers.
  C)  Increasing parent involvement in school governance can create tension when trying to balance the interests of both parties.
  D)  Low-income parents are less interested in their children's school achievement than higher income parents.

42)  Research has shown that inner-city African-American adolescents who are high-achieving and optimistic about their futures in the face of peer pressures 42) ______
  A)  are targets of school violence.
  B)  have an unrealistic world view.
  C)  developed the philosophy that injustice can be overcome through discussions with parents, relatives, and teachers.
  D)  tend to complete high school, but drop out of college.

43)  The open, flexible system for making educational decisions for students in North America 43) ______
  A)  results in fewer low-income students being placed in lower course levels or tracks.
  B)  is being emulated by countries that currently use a national examination to determine high school course placements.
  C)  is impacted by SES to the degree that it more drastically sorts students than systems in other countries.
  D)  was initially devised in an attempt to better serve students with mild cognitive disabilities.

44)  The dropout rate from American high schools is highest for teenagers who are 44) ______
  A)  African-American.
  B)  Hispanic.
  C)  Asian-American.
  D)  white.

45)  Students placed in vocational tracks 45) ______
  A)  general choose these classes because they are more interesting and stimulating than academic courses.
  B)  are three times more likely to drop out than students in college preparatory tracks.
  C)  are much more likely to graduate from high school than those placed in lower-level academic tracks.
  D)  are less likely to finish high school, as they are often hired without a diploma as a result of business internships.

46)  The most powerful influence on extracurricular involvement is 46) ______
  A)  small school size.
  B)  funding for after-school activities.
  C)  the variety of opportunities available for both academic and sports pursuits.
  D)  the school's win/loss sports record.

47)  The good news about American high school dropouts is that about one-third of them 47) ______
  A)  return on their own to finish their education within a few years.
  B)  are happily married and satisfied with their lives.
  C)  advance rapidly in their careers, though they must start low.
  D)  compete successfully for rewarding, well-paying jobs.