Study Guides for Exam 1

Part 1: Chapters by Locher

Locher 1
1. What is collective behavior?
2. Does collective behavior fall outside of normative expectations?
3. What are some other definitions of collective behavior?
4. Are all forms of collective behavior obvious?
5. Is it still collective behavior if it becomes ritualized?
6. Can collective behavior change over time?
7. Is collective behavior really odd?
8. Why is it important to study collective behavior?
9. What is the first modern work focusing on collective behavior? What was the book about?
10. What is the contagion theory?
11. Who and where was the first to use the term collective behavior?
12. In the theory the “acting crowd”, be able to identify the 5 steps.
13. Why is “mass hysteria” not able to explain all forms of collective behavior?
14. Explain the “emergent norm perspective”.
15. What is the value-added theory?
16. What is the Sociocybernetic theory?
17. What are the individualistic theories? According to these theories, where does collective behavior come from?
18. True or False: Are social movements a form of collective behavior?
19. What is relative deprivation theory?
20. What is resource mobilization theory?
21. What is the political process theory?

Locher 2 (page 18 and 16 are out of order)
1. What is the book published by Gustave LeBon that helped develop a theory of collective behavior?
2. How did the book accomplish this?
3. What are the three components to enable you to become part of a psychological crowd?
4. Who suggested that collective behavior was within the field of sociology?
5. What is Blumer’s contagion theory?
6. What is “the mass” according to Blumer?
7. What is expressive crowds according to park (2nd to last page in the pdf)
8. Describe Park’s theory of emergent interaction. (last page in the pdf)

Locher 3
1. Summarize the emergent norm theory.
2. The emergent norm theory is grounded in what theory?
3. What are the 4 steps for the development of collective behavior from the emergent norm perspective?
4. Does communication play a key factor in collective behavior?
5. What are the six conditions necessary for the development of a crowd?
6. What role can uncertainty play in a social movement?
7. What role does urgency play in a social movement?
8. What role does constraint play in a social movement?
9. What is selective individual suggestibility?
10. What is permissiveness?
11. What are the 5 classifications for participants in a social movement?
12. Be able to identify the 5 classifications for participants in a social movement and their different characteristics. Think of examples that fit each classification.
13. What are the core assumptions of collective behavior?

Locher 4
1. Value-added theory has its roots in what theory?
2. What are the main points of the value-added theory according to Smelser?
3. Study Figure 4.1.
4. What are the four components of social action  that drive social behavior? Be able to give an example of each of these in a situation.
5. Explain the value added process.
6. What is the first determinant of collective behavior?
7. What is structural strain?
8. What does the generalized belief do?
9. What are hysterical beliefs?
10. What do wish-fulfillment beliefs do?
11. What are hostile beliefs?
12. What are norm oriented beliefs?
13. What do precipitating factors due in the process?
14. Describe the final stage in which participants are mobilized.
15. What are the two types of social control?
16. Describe a method in which a social agent can use deterrence, accommodation, and redirection?

Locher 13
1. True or False: Social movement participants do unusual and unexpected things that they would not do if they were not participating in the movement.
2. In what way are social movements different from other forms of collective behavior?
3. What are the different types of social movements?
4. Be able to give an example of each type of social movement.
5. What are the different methods to resist social movements?
6. Give an example of each method to resist social movements.
7. Describe the two forms of social control used by legitimate authorities against social movements.
8. What is the most extreme form of resistance to social movements?
9. Why are social movements important?
10. Do all social movements want to create positive change?

Locher 14
1. Explain the mass society theory.
2. What characteristics in the mass society theory make mass movements more likely to occur?
3. What are the characteristics of a mass society?
4. Why do social movements occur in unhealthy societies and not healthy societies?
5. What are examples of culture in a mass society?
6. What are examples of personalities in a mass society?
7. What are some examples of movements that can be explained by mass society theory?
8. What is an example of relative deprivation theory?
9. Why are legitimate expectations necessary to relative deprivation theory?
10. What are the four ways in which discontent can be reduced?
11. Give an example of resource mobilization theory.
12. What is the one assertion of resource mobilization theory?
13. What is a social movement organization?
14. What is the difference between adherents and conscience adherents?
15. Define constituents and conscience constituents.
16. Think of a scenario where you look in a crowd during a social movement, think of who would be the bystander, free-riders, and opponents.
17. What is a professional social movement organization?
18. Why are goals important to a social movement organization?
19. What three things must be accomplished for a movement organization to achieve its goals?
20. What is the ultimate success for a social movement organization?
21. What is the political process theory?
22. What are the three factors that determine the success of a social movement?
23. Review over the four key dimensions of political opportunity that relate to the social system the movement exists in.