Study Guides for 3312 SS 05 Final Exam



A clique is defined as _____.



A crowd is defined as _____.



Co-offending is defined as _____.


††††††††††††††††† _____ is a short lived alliance created to commit a particular crime.



According to _____, a gang is any denotable adolescent group of youngsters who (a) have self-recognition of their gang status; (b) use special vocabulary, clothing, signs, colors, graffit, and names; and (c) have a commitment to criminal activity.


Siegel and Welsh note that _____ are aggressive kids who are either highly liked or

intensely disliked by their peers.


According to Thrasher, _____ areas are cracks and voids in the social, political, and economic fabric of society.


According to the National Youth Gang Survey, _____ percent of gang members were migrants from another gang jurisdiction:


According to definitions by Klein and others, a gang includes what features?


As of 2000, an estimated 24,500 gangs containing about ______ gang members were active in the United States


What is the most common reason for gang member migration in the United States?


Fagan described this type of gang as being involved in few delinquent activities and little drug use other than alcohol and marijuana. Itís called ________.



Fagan described this gang as concentrating on drug use and drug sales, but they do not participate in most other types of delinquent activities; drug sales are designed to finance members' personal drug habits.He called it

††††††††††††††††††† _________.





According to Hagedorn, the _____ are former gang members who have left the gang and "hood" behind.


William Julius Wilson contends that older members are still active to some degree in gangs because ________.


††††††††††††††††† According to Hagedorn, this type of gang member works a regular job, but when they cannot make enough money they sell drugs.


When gang members toss or flash signs to proclaim their gang membership, this is called _____.


According to _____, delinquents are as detached from their peers as they are from other elements of society; although they appear to have close friends, delinquents actually lack the social skills to make their peer relations rewarding or fulfilling.


Klein notes that even the most criminal gang members spend the bulk of their time _____.


_____ was terrorized by organized gangs that called themselves "Hectors," "Bugles," "Dead Boys," and other colorful names.


One survey of nearly 6,000 eighth-graders found that _____ percent were currently gang members.



Siegel and Welsh note that by age _____, most gang members have what?


According to the _____ view, ganging can provide girls with a sense of "sisterhood," independence, and solidarity, as well as a chance to earn profit through illegal activities. Although initial female gang participation may be forged by links to male gang members, once in a gang, girls form close ties with other female members and engage in group criminal activity.


According to the _____ view, female members are still sexually exploited by male gang boys and are sometimes forced to exploit other females; girls who are members of male gang auxiliaries report that males control them by determining the arenas within which they can operate.


Data from the Rochester Youth Development Study, indicates that _____ percent of the youths in the sample report being gang members, but they account for 65 percent of all reported delinquent acts, 86 percent of all serious crimes, 63 percent of the alcohol use, and 61 percent of the drug abuse.


According to the _____ view, gangs appeal to adolescents' longing for the tribal process that sustained their ancestors; gang processes seem similar to the puberty rites of some tribal cultures, and gang rituals help the child bridge the gap between childhood and adulthood


Today, more than 90 percent of school-aged children attend school, compared to only _____ percent in 1890.


What does tracking refer to?


Which countries scored the lowest average science and math achievement scores?


Only _____ percent of the chronic offenders in Marvin Wolfgang's Philadelphia Delinquency in a Birth Cohort study graduated from high school, compared with 74 percent of non-offenders.


Siegel and Welsh note that there are _____ associations between school failure and delinquency.


Cohen contends that delinquency among lower class youths is a result of their poor preparation and socialization to function in schools; according to Cohen they essentially failed to live up to _____.



Siegel and Welsh note that over time the drop out rate overall is _____.


Some contend that the school experience is a _____of delinquent behavior; children who fail at school soon feel frustrated and rejected and believing they will never achieve success through conventional means, they seek out like-minded companions and together engage in antisocial behaviors.


Which of the following groups is reported to have the highest percentage of dropouts in 2001?



African Americans

Truancy accounts for _____ percent of all formally handled status offense cases, representing an 85 percent increase in truancy cases in juvenile court since 1989.


Schools can drug test student athletes according to the United States Supreme Court decision in _____.


Examples include wearing symbols or protest messages on buttons or signs.


What are common school-based policy to reduce school crime and violence?


Most researchers have looked at academic _____, dividing students into groups according to ability and achievement level, as a contributor to student delinquency.


What legal doctrine gives the schools the right to assume some of the duties of parents, including discipline?


Which is the 1974 acts which restricts the disclosure of personal student information without parental consent?


About _____ percent of schools use random metal detectors.


Can you describe the United States Supreme Court ruling in Ingraham v. Wright concerning corporal punishment in schools?


The Supreme Court ruled in _____that any time a student is to be suspended for up to ten days, he or she is entitled to a hearing.


In _____ (2001), the Supreme Court required an upstate New York school district to provide space for an after-school Bible club for elementary students; the Court ruled that it was a violation of the First Amendment's free speech clause to deny the club access to the school space on the ground that the club was religious in nature if the school routinely let secular groups use its space.


In ______, the United States Supreme Court ruled that prayers led by an "elected" student undermines the protection of minority viewpoints; such a system encourages divisiveness along religious lines and threatens the imposition of coercion upon those students not desiring to participate in a religious exercise.


In a 1988 case, Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier, the Court extended the right of school officials to censor active speech when it ruled that the principal could censor articles in a student _____.


In 1986 in _____, the USSC upheld a school system's right to discipline a student who uses obscene or profane language and gestures.


Freedom of speech is guaranteed in the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution; the first of two categories involves _____, a form of expression not associated with actually speaking words; examples include wearing armbands or political protest buttons.


Police need _____ before they can conduct a search, but educators can legally search students when there are reasonable grounds to believe the students have violated the law or broken school rules.


A _____ policy mandates specific consequences or punishments for delinquent acts and not allowing anyone to avoid these consequences.


Which agency conducted an analysis of all 220 school-related shootings occurring between July 1, 1994 and June 30, 1999?


Which of the following causes of truancy is illustrated by drug and alcohol abuse, lack of understanding of attendance laws, lack of social competence, mental health difficulties, and poor physical health.


_____ is produced from the leaves of Cannabis sativa.


_____ is a concentrated form of cannabis made from unadulterated resin from the female Cannabis sativa.




Which drug is associated with distortions in auditory and visual perception, decreased activity, overestimation of time and place, and increased food consumption?


_____ is the most powerful natural stimulant; its use produces euphoria, restlessness, and excitement, while overdoses can cause delirium, violent manic behavior, and respiratory failure.


What is the main active ingredient in marijuana?


_____ is the most used narcotic in the United States; it is produced from opium.


Crack is processed street cocaine; its manufacture involves using _____ to remove hydrochlorides to create a crystaline form of cocaine that can be smoked.


_____ produce insensibility to pain and free the mind of anxiety and pain; users experience relief from fear, release of tension, elevated spirits, and apathy following periods of euphoria.


According to Siegel and Welsh, _____ may be a factor in nearly half of all murders, suicides, and accidental deaths.


_____ are central nervous system depressants, and they produce loss of sensation, stupor, and unconsciousness.


What problems were noted for school-based adolescent drug surveys?


The most widely abused anesthetic drug is phencyclidine, known as _____; it was originally developed as an animal tranquilizer.


Amyl nitrite is a commonly used volatile liquid packaged in capsule form, and it is associated with _____.


A _____ is a substance that leads to the use of more serious drugs. Alcohol and marijuana have been thought to lead to more serious drug use.


_____ are the most commonly used drugs of the barbiturate family, and they depress the central nervous system into a sleeplike condition.


Methedrine is the most widely used and most dangerous _____.


_____ are lab-created synthetic drugs which are designed to at least temporarily get around existing drug laws.


The most widely used designer drug is Ecstasy, which is derived from which two drugs?


According to the 2002 Monitoring the Future study, _____ percent of 10th graders have used ecstasy in the 12-month period preceding the survey.



According to Siegel and Welsh, the most widely used drug amongst teenagers is _____.


A great effort has been made to cut off supplies of drugs by destroying overseas crops and arresting members of drug cartels; this approach is known as _____.


The D.A.R.E. approach has been adopted so rapidly since its founding in 1983 that it is now taught in almost _____of school districts nationwide and in fifty-four other countries.


The ten-year follow-up at age twenty found that the only difference between students who had participated in D.A.R.E. versus students who had not was that those who had participated in D.A.R.E. reported _____ at age twenty.


The National Survey on Drug Use and Health, which asked young people ages twelve to seventeen about antidrug messages they had heard or seen outside of school hours, reported that past-month drug use by those exposed to the messages was _____ than those who had not been exposed to the messages.


Siegel and Welsh note that just over sixty percent of all admissions treatment facilities in the United States involved _____ as the primary drug of abuse.


_____therapy involves getting users to associate drugs with unpleasant sensations, such as nausea.


The _____ technique developed by Scott Henggeler directs attention to family, peer, and psychological problems by focusing on problem solving and communication skills.


Natural or synthetic substances that produce vivid distortions of the senses without greatly disturbing consciousness are known as _____.


Volatile liquids that give off a vapor that is inhaled, and which produce short-term excitement and euphoria followed by a period of disorientation, are known as _____.


The view that the cause of substance abuse can be traced to a personality that has a compulsion for mood-altering drugs is known as _____.


The first modern juvenile court was created in _____ in Illinois.


Which of the following was seen as the primary purpose of the original juvenile justice system?


Which state was the first to develop probation as a disposition of the court?


In 1790 only 5 percent of the population lived in cities, and by 1920 it was _____ percent.


In 1817 prominent New Yorkers formed the _____; the group attacked taverns, brothels, and gambling, but they also viewed the moral training of youths from the dangerous classes as inadequate.


From the court's creation in 1899 until the late 1960s, what was the burden of proof in a juvenile court case?


The most prominent of the care facilities developed by the child savers was the _____, opened in 1825; it was founded on the concept of protecting potential criminal youths by taking them off the street and reforming them in a family like environment.


The doctrine of _____ allowed justice officials to place youths in restrictive settings, for the youth's own good, and without the legal protections afforded by the adult criminal justice system.


About how many youths were placed out in rural homesteads by the Children's Aid Society by 1930?


The first Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children was created in 1874, and by 1900 _____.


What best describes the goals of the Illinois Juvenile Court Act of 1899?


In Thompson v. Oklahoma (1988), the ruling by the US Supreme Court concerning the execution of adolescents stated that the death penalty imposed on youths _____.


What was the U.S. Supreme Court's ruling in Vernonia School District v. Acton (1995) concerning drug testing of students?


The US Supreme Court ruled that _____ was the standard to judge whether a search conducted by school authorities was legal.


An adult offender is labeled a criminal; the comparable term for a juvenile is a _____.


A _____ for a juvenile is similar to a criminal trial for an adult.


If the youth is adjudicated delinquent, the court must decide an outcome or treatment approach; this decision is made during the _____.


Adults plea bargain, while the term used in the juvenile justice system is _____.


Juvenile aftercare is similar to _____ for adults.


Which of the following is not offered as a potential benefit of teen courts?


Prior to the creation of the juvenile court, how were juveniles who violated the law treated?


What type of labor was performed by juveniles housed in the House of Refuge?


In their study of the early juvenile court Memphis, Tennessee, Shelden and Osborne noted that more than 96 percent of the actions with which females were charged were _____.


According to Siegel and Welsh, what were children's legal rights during the period of the Child Savers?


New York philanthropist Charles Loring Brace helped develop the _____ in 1853; Brace's formula for dealing with delinquent youths was to rescue them from the harsh environment of the city and provide them with temporary shelter.


Brace and the Children's Aid Society devised the _____ to send these children to western farms where they could be cared for and find a home; youths were placed on what became known as orphan trains, which made preannounced stops in western farming communities.



The United States Supreme Court in the _____ case upheld a statute allowing for the placement of children in preventive detention before their adjudication; the Court concluded that it was not unreasonable to detain juveniles for their own protection.


The United States Supreme Court in the _____ case determined that the Fourth Amendment applies to school searches; the Court adopted a "reasonable suspicion" standard, as opposed to the stricter standard of "probable cause," to evaluate the legality of searches and seizures in a school setting.


The _____ was the organization of men in early English society who patrolled areas at night to protect against disturbances and breaches of the peace.


What policing system was used in England prior to the Norman conquest and the establishment of the watch system?


The first professional police force established in 1829 in _____.


_____ was the chief of police in Berkeley, California, who required university training, used modern management techniques, and instituted prevention programs.


It is estimated that _____ percent of all juvenile arrests are handled informally within the police department or referred to a community service agency.


Which course of action is most likely to happen to 364 of every 500 delinquents taken into custody?


Which of the following is the legal standard in order that police may make an arrest for felonies which they do not witness?


_____ represents facts, circumstances, and evidence which would lead a reasonable person to believe that a crime was committed and a specific person did it.


The protection against unreasonable searches and seizures is contained within the _____ amendment.


The right to remain silent, right to an attorney, and the idea that statements made voluntarily will be used against the person make up the _____.


According to People v. Lara, juveniles can waive their Miranda rights, but the validity of the waiver is determined by the circumstances of each case; this illustrates the _____ test.


Juveniles are protected against _____ searches and seizures.


What happens with illegally seized evidence in juvenile proceedings?


Decentralized police operations, direct engagement with the community, empowering line officers, and community partnerships are associated with _____.


According to _____, juveniles can waive their Miranda rights, but the validity of the waiver is determined by the circumstances of each case, otherwise known as the totality of the circumstances.


Police _____ is selective enforcement of the law by authorized police agents; it gives officers a choice among possible courses of action within the limits on their power.


Which of the following is a source of police discretion?


_____ refers to questions posed by the police to a suspect held in custody in the

†††††††††††††††††† prejudicial stage of the juvenile justice process.


_____ refers to a style of law enforcement that focuses on addressing the problems underlying incidents of juvenile delinquency rather than the incidents alone.


One of the most successful examples of problem-oriented policing focused on reducing juvenile crime and violence is the program known as _____; implemented in Boston, this program aims to reduce youth homicide victimization and youth gun violence.


Operation Cease Fire has two main elements: a direct law enforcement focus on illicit gun traffickers who supply youth with guns and _____.


The systematic nature of problem-oriented policing is characterized by its adherence to a four-step model, often referred to as _____.


Concerning police honesty, Siegel and Welsh note that _____ percent of African-American youths said the police were honest, compared to 57 percent of Whites, 51 percent of Asians, 31 percent of Hispanics, and 30 percent of Native Americans.


Siegel and Welsh note that handling juvenile offenders can produce major _____ for police; they may experience a tension between their desire to perform what they consider their primary duty, law enforcement, and the need to aid in the rehabilitation of youthful offenders.


Siegel and Welsh note that for every five hundred juveniles taken into custody, around _____ percent are released.


Which of the following is not noted as a program or policy that works to reduce crime and delinquency?


A felony is a serious offense. A misdemeanor is a minor or petty crime. Crimes such as murder, rape, and _____ are felonies.


Between 1990 and 1999, cases processed by the juvenile justice system _____.


More than _____ delinquency cases are adjudicated annually.


The greatest increase of delinquency cases occurred in this crime type.


About _____ percent of delinquency cases in 1999 involved males.


About _____ percent of delinquency cases involved African American youth.


A _____ is appointed by the court and advocates on behalf of the youth's best interest; the individual may advocate for the commitment on the ground that it is in the child's best interest.


_____ are volunteers who advise the court about child placement issues; volunteers investigate the needs of children and provide a vital link between the court members.


The primary goal of the guardian ad litem is to act _____.


The _____ is the attorney responsible for bringing the state's case against the accused



Juvenile were securely detained in _____ percent of the delinquency cases processed

in 1999.


Which of the following was not given as a reason why delinquent children are

detained prior to their court hearing?


Research of the Detention Diversion Advocacy Program indicated that _____.


What is characteristic of the DDAP approach?

Jurisdictions who violate federal guidelines for housing juveniles in jails with adult

offenders face _____.


The United States Supreme Court upheld the practice of preventive detention in

_____ holding that the practice protects the juvenile and society from pretrial crime.


In 1989, the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974 was amended

to prohibit _____.


In about fifteen states, the prosecutor has the discretion of filing charges for certain

offenses in either juvenile or criminal court, this is called _____.


In a _____, a hearing is held before a juvenile court judge who then decides whether

jurisdiction should be waived and the case transferred to the adult court.


Which of the following best describes the United States Supreme Court's ruling in

Breed v. Jones?


In the most significant juvenile justice case, Gault was charged with _____.


Siegel and Welsh note that about _____ percent of all adult defendants plead guilty.


Adults retain the right, via the _____ Amendment to the Constitution, to reasonable bail in noncapital cases; most states, however, refuse juveniles the right to bail.


From 1994 to 1999, the number of cases waived to criminal court has declined 38 percent to 7,500 cases, representing less than _____ percent of the formally processed delinquency caseload.


In about twenty-nine states, certain offenses are automatically excluded from juvenile court; this type of legislation is called _____.


Siegel and Welsh note that the most recent federal study of waiver found that _____ percent of juveniles tried in criminal court were sent to prison.


A _____ is the report made by the police or some other agency to the court to initiate the intake process. Once the agency makes a decision that judicial disposition is required, a petition is filed.


A complaint is the report made by the police or some other agency to the court to initiate the intake process. Once the agency makes a decision that judicial disposition is required, a _____ is filed.


The most damaging criticism has been that diversion programs are involving children in the juvenile justice system who previously would have been released without official notice. This is referred to as _____.


One of the most important alternatives chosen at intake is nonjudicial disposition, or as it is variously called, nonjudicial adjustment, handling or processing, informal disposition, adjustment, or (most commonly) _____.


About _____ percent (279,100) of all delinquency cases in 1999 were dismissed at intake, often because they were not legally sufficient.


Murray and Cox report a _____, a reduction in the number of arrests per year, following release from a secure treatment facility.


_____ is the primary form of correctional treatment used by the juvenile justice system.


Which state was the first to close its secure juvenile facilities after decades of reported abuses, opting instead for a community based model for juvenile justice?


_____ is a contract between the court and the juvenile; it allows the juvenile to remain in the community under supervision with a period of incarceration in abeyance.


_____ are rules mandating that a juvenile on probation behave in a particular way, and can include restitution, counseling, and educational and vocational programs.


The _____ is a clinical diagnosis of the child's problems and of his need for court assistance based on an evaluation of social functioning, personality, and environmental issues prepared by the probation officer.


What best describes the effectiveness of Juvenile Intensive Probation Supervision?


An analysis technique that synthesizes results across many programs over time is called a(n) _____.


Formal probation accounts for about _____ % of all juvenile dispositions.


_____ approach integrates community protection, the accountability of the offender, and individualized attention to the offender.

A juvenile can reimburse the victim of a crime or donate money to a charity or public cause; this is called _____.


_____ is a non secure residence that provides counseling, education, job training, and family living. The institutional quality of the environment is minimized.


A policy known as _____ mandates that a youth should not be put in a secure institution if a community based program is available.


_____ involve one or two juveniles who live with a family, usually a husband and wife, who serve as surrogate parents.



_____ type of counseling requires an extensive analysis of the individual's childhood experiences.


_____ is based on the theory that all behavior is learned and that current behavior can be shaped through rewards and punishments.


_____ programs use groups in which peer leaders encourage other youths to conform to conventional behavior.


Recommended length of confinement and kinds of aftercare assistance most effective for a juvenile who committed a specific offense are known as _____.


In _____, all aspects of the environment are part of the treatment, and meaningful change, increased growth, and satisfactory adjustment are encouraged.


Programs that combine get-tough elements with education, substance abuse treatment, and social skills training are generally referred to as _____.


Programs involving outdoor expeditions that provide opportunities for juveniles to confront the difficulties of their lives while achieving positive personal satisfaction are generally referred to as _____.











In _____, the offender is required to stay home during specific periods of time; monitoring is done by random phone calls and visits or by electronic devices.


In Nevada's IAP, youths are provided with mock checking accounts from which "bills" must be paid for rent, food, insurance, and other necessities. They can also use their accounts to purchase recreation and other privileges, but each must have a balance of at least $50 at the end of the thirty days to _____.


The _____ model developed by David Altschuler and Troy Armstrong offers a continuum of intervention for serious juvenile offenders returning to the community following placement.


_____in the juvenile justice system is the equivalent of parole in the adult criminal justice system.




In _____, a federal court argued that rehabilitation is the true purpose of the juvenile court and that, without that goal, due process guarantees are violated; it condemned such devices as solitary confinement, strip cells, and lack of educational opportunities, and held that juveniles have a statutory right to treatment.