Note that the questions below are not intended to be identical to all those seen on the exam.  There will be some questions on the exam unrelated to those seen below (but, in general, there is very substantial correspondence with those seen below).  Note, too, that the questions below are not intended to cover lectures.  You are responsible for reviewing lecture notes on your own.


The questions below, do not cover the Lundman book, but you are responsible for those readings too.  I’ll try to get at least a few illustrative questions re Lundman together for you, but they will come later.



Study Guides for Midterm Exam – 3313



Chapter 1


1.               Has the age of sexual maturity changed over the last 150 years?



2.               About what percent of all eligible youths do not finish high school.



3.               Siegel and Welsh note that about _____ percent of youths in the United States are considered at-risk.



4.               Transferring legal jurisdiction over the most serious and experienced juvenile offenders to the adult court for criminal prosecution is known as _____.



5.               Siegel and Welsh notes that in 2002, _____ % of children under age eighteen lived with two married parents.



6 .              According to Siegel and Welsh, _____ percent of high school students reported episodic heavy drinking during the past month.


7.               Parents may be held civilly liable for the conduct of their minor children, under the concept of _____.


8.               Chancery courts were founded on the proposition that children were under the protective control of the king, or _____, which refers to the role of the king as father of his country.


9.               Which of the following best describes the operating philosophy of the juvenile court under parens patriae?


10.             Truancy, incorrigibility, running away, and underage consumption of alcohol represent _____.


11.             Nineteenth-century reformers, known as _____, developed programs for troubled youth and influenced legislation creating the juvenile justice system; today some critics view them as being more concerned with control of the poor than with their welfare.



12.             What is the main criteria on which juvenile sentencing is based?



13.             What laws allowed for the appointment of overseers to place destitute or neglected children as servants in the homes of the affluent, where they were trained in agricultural, trade, or domestic services.



14.             A hundred and fifty years ago girls matured sexually at age 16, but today they do so at _____ years of age.


Chapter 2


15 .            Under the JJDPA and its subsequent reauthorizations, what were states required to do in order to receive federal funds?


16.             What are the Part I offenses? 


17.              For which acts are females more likely to be taken into custody compared to males?


18.             How can a bad economy reduce juvenile crime?


19.             What are the major criticisms of official data?


20 .            What sort of information would be least likely to be contained in a self-report?


21.             What is the name of the FBI's crime data publication?


22.             In the Pennsylvania birth cohort follow-up, it was found that chronic offenders had a(n)_____ chance of becoming adult offenders.


23.             Chronic recidivists made up about _____ percent of both Philadelphia cohorts?


24.             What factor compounds economic marginalization to explain high rates of African-

                  American delinquency?


25.             Juveniles were responsible for about _____ percent of the property crime arrests.


26.             Juveniles were responsible for about _____ percent of all arrests for index crimes.




27.             Juveniles were responsible for about _____ percent of all arrests for violent crimes.


28.             Males commit _____ serious violent offenses for every 1 committed by females.


29.             Siegel and Welsh note that, between 1993 and 2002, male arrests decreased about sixteen percent, while the number of female delinquents arrested _____.


30.             Which demographic group reports the highest rates of victimization?


Chapter 3


31.             According to choice theorists, why do offenders commit their crimes?


32.             What philosophy did Beccaria and Bentham believe in that then from the core of classical criminology?




33.             _____ theory views crime as being caused by the interaction of three variables: suitable targets, motivated offenders, and the absence of capable guardians.


34.             Can you define “general deterrence” and “specific deterrence?”



35.             It has been suggested that children who manifest behaviorial disturbances may have neurological deficits, such as damage to the hemispheres of the brain; this is sometimes referred to as _____.


36.             It is estimated that the average child views _____ TV murders before finishing elementary school.


37.             According to _____, if a particular behavior is reinforced by some positive reaction or event, the behavior will continue and eventually learned.


38.             Erik Erikson coined the term _____ which describes the inner turmoil that many adolescents experience in which they feel emotional, impulsive, and uncertain of their role and purpose.


39.             Which theorist developed the stages of moral development?




40.              According to Freud, the _____ is the unrestrained, pleasure seeking component with which each child is born.




41.             According to Freud, what _____ develops through interactions with parents and others and represents the conscience and the moral rules that are shared by most adults.


42.             Oscar Lewis coined the term _____ to describe feelings of apathy, helplessness, and mistrust of institutions experienced by the urban poor.


43.             Relative deprivation refers to a sense of _____.


44.             This source of strain outlined by Robert Agnew can be caused by the loss of girlfriend, moving to a new neighborhood, or the divorce of parents.


45.             According to Robert Merton, individuals without acceptable means for obtaining success experience _____.


46.             Control theory sees delinquency as the result of _____.


47.             Which of the following best describes social disorganization theory principles?


48.             Which of the following theories assumes that children are born bad and learn to be good through the efforts of others?


49.             In Hirschi's social control theory, attachment, commitment, involvement, and _____ are elements of the bond to society.


50.             Which element of Hirschi's social bond is illustrated by maintaining a positive image in the community, good work history, and high aspirations for future accomplishments.


51.             Which of the following best describes conflict theory?


52.             Clifford Shaw and Henry McKay found that delinquency rates were high in what they called _____, areas that had changed from affluence to decay, where factories and commercial establishments were interspersed with private residences.


53.             The _____ is a group of urban poor whose members have little chance of upward mobility or improvement.


54.             _____ is the process of passing on deviant traditions and delinquent values from one from one generation to the next.


55.              What perspective contends that one's propensity for crime remains stable throughout the lifecourse, but the opportunities for crime varies across the stages of life.


56.             _____ suggests that delinquent behavior is a dynamic process, influenced by individual characteristics and social experiences and factors, which cause anti social behaviors, change dramatically over a person's life.


Chapter 4


57.             Contemporary developmental research was inspired by the research efforts of Harvard's _____ in the 1930s.


58.             Referred to as _____, developmental theorists view crime is just among a group of antisocial behaviors that cluster together and typically involve family dysfunction, substance abuse, smoking, precocious sexuality, educational underachievement, and underemployment.


59.             Which of the following best describes the onset of crime according to Thornberry's interactional theory?


60.             Which of the following is identified as the two critical turning points according to Sampson and Laub?


61.              Which of the following is a social process variable identified by Sampson and Laub?


62.             The _____ program involves mentoring for a minimum of two hours each week in one-on-one contact, community service for one to two hours per week, and social competence training; social competence training uses the "Social Problem-Solving Module" composed of twenty-six weekly lessons at forty-five minutes each.

Chapter 5


63.             To illustrate support for the chivalry hypothesis, it was noted that about _____ % of incarcerated prisoners are females.


64.             Siegel and Welsh note that once in the system, females receive what kind of services those received by males?


65.             The most recent arrest data show that, between 1993 and 2003, the total teenage male arrest rate decreased by about sixteen percent and the female rate _____ percent.


66.             According to _____, women who commit crimes have biological and psychological traits similar to men.


67.             Which of the following best describes Lombroso's view of female criminality?


68.             Girls who reach puberty at an earlier age were viewed as being at a higher risk for delinquency because _____.


69.             Early female delinquency tended to involve _____ offenses.


70.             A view that males seek out many sex partners to increase their reproductive potential while females seek things that will help them rear their offspring is associated with the _____ perspective.


71.             In a 1928 work, The Unadjusted Girl, _____ forged a link between socialization, sexuality, and delinquency.


72.             Who stated that female delinquency is linked to the wish for luxury and excitement; inequalities in the social class system condemned poor girls from impoverished families to use sex as a means to gain amusement, adventure, pretty clothes, and other luxuries?


Chapter 6


73.               Can you define a nuclear family?


74.             Statistics indicate that time spent by fathers with their children has _____in the last twenty years.


75.             About _____ % of African American children live in a two-parent household.


76.             About _____ % of all births are to unwed mothers.


77.             Siegel and Welsh note that about 90% of daycare providers _____.


78.             Which of the following best describes a blended family?


79.             Siegel and Welsh give credit to Nye for establishing a link between parental conflict and delinquency with the finding that _____.


80.             A _____ is an attorney appointed by the court to look after the interests of those who do not have the capacity to assert their own rights.


81.             About _____ % of white children will experience parental separation or divorce before they reach age sixteen.


82.             During a(an) _____, the court reviews the facts of the case, determines whether removal of the child from the home is justified, and notifies the parents of charges against them.


83.             At the _____, the attorney for the social service agency presents an overview of the case and the evidence; matters such as admissibility of photos and written reports are settled. The attorneys can negotiate a settlement of the case, in which the parents accept a treatment plan.


84.             _____ are periodically held to determine if the conditions of the case plan are being met.


Chapter 7


85.             Which of the following best describes control theory's view of the relationship between delinquents and their delinquent peers?


86.             Thrasher defines a gang as an _____ group originally formed spontaneously and then integrated through conflict.


87.             Fagan described this type of gang as being involved in few delinquent activities and little drug use other than alcohol and marijuana.  It’s called?


88.             William Julius Wilson contends that older members are still active to some degree in gangs because?


89.             According to Hagedorn, this type of gang member works a regular job, but when they cannot make enough money they sell drugs.  He/she is called ___________?


90.             When gang members toss or flash signs to proclaim their gang membership, this is called _____.


91.             Siegel and Welsh note that by age _____, most gang members have (a) fired a pistol, (b) seen someone killed or seriously injured, (c) gotten a gang tattoo, and (d) been arrested.


92.             According to the _____ view, female members are still sexually exploited by male gang boys and are sometimes forced to exploit other females; girls who are members of male gang auxiliaries report that males control them by determining the arenas within which they can operate.


93 .            Data from the Rochester Youth Development Study, indicates that _____ percent of the youths in the sample report being gang members, but they account for 65 percent of all reported delinquent acts, 86 percent of all serious crimes, 63 percent of the alcohol use, and 61 percent of the drug abuse.


94.             According to the _____ view, gangs appeal to adolescents' longing for the tribal process that sustained their ancestors; gang processes seem similar to the puberty rites of some tribal cultures, and gang rituals help the child bridge the gap between childhood and adulthood


Chapter 8


95.             Today, more than 90 percent of school-aged children attend school, compared to only _____ percent in 1890.


96.             What does tracking refer to?


97.             How do U. S. students do onscience and math achievement scores when compared to other nations?


98.             Only _____ percent of the chronic offenders in Marvin Wolfgang's Philadelphia Delinquency in a Birth Cohort study graduated from high school, compared with 74 percent of non-offenders.

99.             Cohen contends that delinquency among lower class youths is a result of their poor preparation and socialization to function in schools; according to Cohen they essentially failed to live up to _____.


100.            Which of the following groups is reported to have the highest percentage of dropouts in 2001?


101.            What legal doctrine gives the schools the right to assume some of the duties of parents, including discipline?


102.            Which is the 1974 acts which restricts the disclosure of personal student information without parental consent?


103.            Freedom of speech is guaranteed in the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution; the first of two categories involves _____, a form of expression not associated with actually speaking words; examples include wearing armbands or political protest buttons.


104.            Police need _____ before they can conduct a search, but educators can legally search students when there are reasonable grounds to believe the students have violated the law or broken school rules.



Indicate whether the sentence or statement is true or false.


____           105.            Divorce strikes about three-quarters of all new marriages.


____           106.            Siegel and Welsh note that nine percent of high school students attempted suicide during the past year.


____           107.            Juvenile records are confidential and juvenile proceedings are not open to the public in order to shield the      

                                   youth from the stigma of a criminal conviction and to prevent youthful misdeeds from becoming a lifelong



____           108.            Siegel and Welsh note that, in the short term, a poor economy produces lower crime rates.


____           109.            Crime rates reached a low in 1990 and have steadily increased since that time.


____           110.            Siegel and Welsh note that, after a long increase in juvenile crime, there has been a decade decrease in the  

                                    number of juveniles arrested for nonviolent and violent crimes.


____           111.            Delinquents are disproportionately male, although female delinquency rates are rising faster than those for



____           112.            Siegel and Welsh note that females are more often the victims of delinquency than males.


____           113.            Self-reports show that delinquency is confined mainly to the lowest level of the economic structure.


____           114.            Siegel and Welsh note that the United States, the richest country in the world, devotes less of its resources

                                    to education than do many other nations; spending on elementary and secondary education (as a percentage

                                    of the U.S. gross domestic product) is less than that of other nations.


____           115.            Siegel and Welsh note that tracking is an effective method for providing academic success to all students in a



____           116.            Truancy accounts for 26 percent of all formally handled status offense cases, representing an 85 percent

                                     increase in truancy cases in juvenile court since 1989.


____           117.            Schools are often more safe than its surrounding community; students who report being afraid in school are

                                     actually more afraid in parks, streets, and subways.