Study Questions for Chapter 11

 

1. According to the text's discussion of families:

 

a. families are becoming distanced from their older members.

b. families are no longer an important concern for sociologists.

c. families have changed dramatically during the 20th century.

d. today, most people do not have family ties.

2. The text defines families as:

 

a. people who are related to each other by blood or legal ties.

b. relationships in which people live together with commitment, form an economic unit and care for any young, and consider their identity to be significantly attached to the group.

c. kinship ties that are sociologically significant.

d. any group that considers itself to be a family.

3. According to the text's discussion of contemporary trends in U.S. family life:

 

a. many lesbians and gay men have chosen to have children.

b. most U.S. family households are composed of a married couple with one or more children under the age of 18.

c. nearly 25 percent of all marriages are dual-earner marriages.

d. alcohol abuse was not a widespread problem prior to the alleged recent decline in "family values."

4. In regard to contemporary trends in U.S. family life, the text points out that:

 

a. recent studies have determined that sexual activity is more satisfying to people who are in sustained relationships such as marriage.

b. people over the age 45 are more likely to cohabit than people under age 45.

c. teenage pregnancies have increased dramatically over the past 30 years.

d. the percentage of unmarried teenage pregnancies has decreased dramatically over the past 30 years.

5. ___________ refers to a social network of people based on common ancestry, marriage, or adoption.

 

a. Family

b. Lineage

c. Kinship

d. Heritage

6. All of the following statements regarding kinship are true, except:

 

a. in preindustrial societies, the primary form of social organization is through kinship ties.

b. kinship networks often lead to conflict as people compete for basic necessities of life.

c. kinship systems serve as a means by which property is transferred, goods are produced and distributed, and power is allocated.

d. in industrial societies, other social institutions fulfill some of the functions previously taken care of by the kinship network.

7. As defined in your text, the family into which a person is born and in which early socialization usually takes place, is known as a(n):

 

a. family of orientation.

b. family of procreation.

c. nuclear family.

d. extended family.

8. As defined in your text, the family a person forms by having or adopting children is known as a(n):

 

a. family of orientation.

b. family of procreation.

c. nuclear family.

d. extended family.

9. Which of the following is/are member(s) of a person's family of orientation?

 

a. spouse

b. sons and daughters

c. parents

d. aunts and uncles

10. According to sociologist Kath Weston, many gay men and lesbians have ____________--social arrangements that include intimate relationships between couples and close familial relationships among other couples and other adults and children.

 

a. casual families

b. alternative families

c. non-traditional families

d. families they chose

11. According to sociologist Judy Root Aulette, some families include ___________ kin--people who are not actually related by blood but are accepted as family members.

 

a. imaginary

b. unreal

c. fictive

d. disjointed

12. ___________ refers to family units that are composed of relatives in addition to parents and children who live in the same household.

 

a. Disjointed kin

b. Extended family

c. Nuclear family

d. Conjugal family

13. __________ refers to family units composed of one or two parents and their dependent children, all of whom live apart from other relatives.

 

a. Disjointed kin

b. Extended family

c. Nuclear family

d. Conjugal family

14. __________ is a legally recognized and/or socially approved arrangement between two or more individuals that carries certain rights and obligations and usually involves sexual activity.

 

a. Marriage

b. Cohabitation

c. Trial separation

d. Monogamous experimentation

15. __________ refers to a marriage between two partners, usually a woman and a man.

 

a. Homogamy

b. Polygamy

c. Monogamy

d. Group marriage

16. In the United States, the only legally sanctioned form of marriage is:

 

a. monogamy.

b. polygamy.

c. matriarchy.

d. patriarchy.

17. Through a pattern of marriage, divorce, and remarriage, some people practice __________--a succession of marriages in which a person has several spouses over a lifetime but is legally married to only one person at a time.

 

a. sequential coupling

b. serial monogamy

c. marriage seriatim

d. polygamy

18. __________ is the concurrent marriage of a person of one sex with two or more members of the opposite sex.

 

a. Polygamy

b. Polygyny

c. Polyandry

d. Group marriage

19. __________ is the concurrent marriage of one man with two or more women.

 

a. Polygamy

b. Polygyny

c. Polyandry

d. Group marriage

20. __________ is the concurrent marriage of one woman with two or more men.

 

a. Polygamy

b. Polygyny

c. Polyandry

d. Group marriage

21. According to the text's discussion of marriage patterns:

 

a. the most prevalent form of polygamy is polyandry.

b. polygyny is very rare.

c. polyandry often involves the marriage of a woman to two or more brothers.

d. polyandry brings prestige to men.

22. __________ systems are set up in such a manner that a legitimate son inherits his father's property and sometimes his position upon the father's death.

 

a. Patrilineal

b. Patrilocal

c. Patricentric

d. Patriarchal

23. In ____________ systems, inheritance of property and position usually is traced from the maternal uncle (mother's brother) to his nephew (mother's son) and, in some cases, mothers may pass on their property to daughters.

 

a. matricentric

b. matrilocal

c. matrilineal

d. matriarchal

24. The most common form of kinship tracing in industrial societies is:

 

a. matrilineal.

b. bilateral.

c. patrilineal.

d. unilineal.

25. All of the following are forms of familial power and authority, as mentioned in the text, except:

 

a. patriarchy.

b. matriarchy.

c. eqalitarianism.

d. bilateralism.

26. A(n) __________ family is a family structure in which authority is held by the eldest male) (usually the father).

 

a. patriarchal

b. matriarchal

c. egalitarian

d. bilateral

27. A(n) _________ family is a family structure in which authority is held by the eldest female (usually the mother).

 

a. patriarchal

b. matriarchal

c. egalitarian

d. bilateral

28. A(n) _________ family is a family structure in which both partners share power and authority equally.

 

a. biarchal

b. bipolar

c. egalitarian

d. bilateral

29. __________ residence refers to the custom of a married couple living in the same household (or community) as the husband's family.

 

a. Patriarchal

b. Patrilocal

c. Patricentric

d. Patrilineal

30. Across cultures, ________________ residency is most common.

 

a. matrilocal

b. patrilocal

c. neolocal

d. multilocal

31. __________ residence refers to the custom of a married couple living in the same household (or community) as the wife's parents.

 

a. Matriarchal

b. Matrilocal

c. Matricentric

d. Matrilineal

32. In industrialized nations such as the United States, most couples hope to live in a(n) __________ residence.

 

a. bilateral

b. neolocal

c. egalitarian

d. neocentric

33. In the United States, most people marry within their social class, racial-ethnic group, religious affiliation, and other categories considered important within their own social group. This pattern is referred to as:

 

a. exogamy.

b. homogamy.

c. heterogamy.

d. endogamy.

34. According to the __________ perspective, the family is important for maintaining the stability of society and the well-being of individuals.

 

a. functionalist

b. interactionist

c. conflict

d. feminist

35. __________ refers to cultural norms prescribing that people marry outside of their own social group or category.

 

a. Exogamy

b. Homogamy

c. Heterogamy

d. Endogamy

36. In regard to the family, Emile Durkheim pointed out that:

 

a. interaction between marital partners contributes to a shared reality.

b. females are socialized to be passive and males are socialized to be aggressive.

c. a division of labor contributes to greater efficiency in marriages and families.

d. men's domination over women existed long before private ownership of property and capitalism.

37. In advanced industrial societies, families serve all of the following functions, except:

 

a. sexual regulation.

b. economic and psychological support.

c. provision of social status.

d. guaranteed reproduction.

38. The text points out that conflict and feminist analysts:

 

a. examine the relationship between family and troubles and a decline in other social institutions.

b. view functionalist perspectives on the role of the family as realistic and adequate

c. view families as sources of social inequality and conflict over values, goals, and access to the resources and power.

d. none of the above

39. Conflict explanations of family problems, such as high rates of divorce and overall family instability, focus on:

 

a. how exploitation of the lower classes by the upper classes contributes to family problems.

b. the relationship between family troubles and changes in order social institutions, such as the economy, religion, and law.

c. the way in which definitions concerning family problems are not only socially constructed but also have an effect on how people live.

d. patriarchy and how men's domination over women contributes to inequalities in families.

40. Feminist explanations of family problems, such as high rates of divorce and overall family instability, focus on:

 

a. how exploitation of the lower classes by the upper classes contributes to family problems.

b. the relationship between family troubles and changes in other social institutions such as the economy, religion, and law.

c. the way in which definitions concerning family problems not only are social constructures but also have an effect on how people are treated.

d. patriarchy and how men's domination over women contributes to inequalities in families.

41. According to sociologists Peter Berger and Hansfried Kellner, interaction between marital partners:

 

a. contributes to a shared reality.

b. inevitably leads to conflict.

c. produces functional consequences.

d. is similar to the interactions between workers and owners in a factory.

42. Interactionists explain family relationships in terms of:

 

a. the subjective meanings and everyday interpretations that people give to their lives.

b. the nature of the interactions between the capitalists and the working class.

c. the extent to which the family is able to serve the four key functions.

d. how power is distributed among family members.

43. According to sociologist ______________, women tend to express their feelings verbally, whereas men tend to express their love through nonverbal actions, such as running an errand for someone or repairing a child's broken toy.

 

a. Kath Weston

b. Judy Root Aulette

c. Lillian Rubin

d. Francesa Cancian

44. ______________ refers to a couple who live together without being legally married.

 

a. Cohabitation

b. Domestic partnership

c. Homogamy

d. Dual career marriage

45. In regard to housework, sociologist Arlie Hochschild notes that:

 

a. domestic work is now shared by both husbands and wives.

b. although women and men perform different household tasks, they have similar deadlines for their work.

c. even when husbands share some of the household responsibilities, they typically spend much less time in these activities than do their wives.

d. the unpaid housework that women do amounts to an extra week of work each year.

46. In 1996, _______ percent of employed mothers with children under age six worked full-time.

 

a. 28

b. 50

c. nearly 70

d. over 90

47. Employed women often complete eight or more hours on the job each day and then come home to a variety of domestic work responsibilities. Sociologist Arlie Hochschild has referred to this situation as the:

 

a. second shift.

b. double bind.

c. domestic bind.

d. need for a working-woman's holiday.

48. According to the text's discussion of adoption:

 

a. a new birth certificate is issued in most adoptions.

b. matching children who are available for adoption with prospective adoptive parents is simple and straightforward.

c. more infants are available for adoption today than in the past.

d. few U.S. parents seek to adopt parentless children in developing nations.

49. According to sociologists Leslie King and Madonna Harrington Meyer:

 

a. women employed full-time who are single parents probably have the greatest burden of all.

b. many U.S. women spend up to one-half of their lives attempting to control their reproductivity.

c. the unpaid housework that women do on the second shifts amounts to an extra month of work each year

d. women tend to express their feelings non-verbally

50. According to sociologist Charlene Miall, women who are involuntarily childless engage in "___________" to combat the social stigma associated with childlessness.

 

a. symbolic parenting

b. information management

c. informal mothering

d. spiritual pregnancy

51. For the approximately 6.4 million women who become pregnant each year in the United States, about _______ pregnancies are unintended.

 

a. 300,000

b. 1 million

c. 4 million

d. 3.6 million

52. In 1996, the number of live births per 1,000 women age 15-19 was 54.7, down from _________ in 1991.

 

a. 62.1

b. 70.1

c. 75

d. 82

53. According to sociologist Brian Robinson, all of the following are myths regarding teenage fathers, except:

 

a. they are worldly-wise "superstuds" who engage in sexual activity early and often.

b. they have few emotional feelings for the women they impregnate.

c. they are "phantom fathers" who rarely are involved in caring for and rearing their children.

d. they sometimes try to be good fathers.

54. About ________ percent of all African American children will spend part of their childhood living in a household headed by a single mother who is divorced, separated, never-married, or widowed.

 

a. 42

b. 55

c. 75

d. 86

55. Some single fathers who do not have custody of their children remain actively involved in their children's lives. Others may become "_____________," who take their children to recreational activities and buy them presents for special occasions but have a very small part in their children's day-to-day lives.

 

a. part-time parents

b. Disneyland daddies

c. Chuckie Cheese fathers

d. Showbiz Pizza dads

56. Currently, men head about 17 percent of white one-parent families and 7 percent of African American one-parent families. The text observes that among many of these men, a pattern of "_________" has emerged.

 

a. detached parenting

b. part-time fathering

c. involved fatherhood

d. Mr. Mom

57. According to sociologists Sara McLanahan and Karen Booth:

 

a. single fathers who do not have custody of their children may play a relatively limited role in the lives of those children.

b. children from mother-only families are more likely than children in two-parent families to have poor academic achievement, higher school absentee and dropout rates, early marriage and parenthood, higher rates of divorce, and more drug and alcohol abuse.

c. most divorced people marry within three years of their first divorce.

58. Among persons age 18 and over in 1997, _________ percent of African American men and _______ percent of African American women had never married.

 

a. 32; 23

b. 42; 37

c. 58; 42

d. 37; 24

59. According to the text, which of the following statement(s) highlight the family?

 

a. Families exist only when both parents are in the home.

b. For good or ill, families are central to our existence.

c. The United States requires that all families must attend church.

d. All parents must go through parenting classes before having children in the United States.

60. ______________ refers to any intentional act or series of acts that causes injury to a female or male spouse.

 

a. Mental abuse

b. Child abuse

c. Elderly abuse

d. Spousal abuse

61. According to sociologists, the term "_________" also refers to married people and to those who are cohabiting or involved in a serious relationship, as well as those individuals who are separated or living apart from their former spouse.

 

a. spousal abuse

b. mental abuse

c. spousal rights

d. legal relationship

62. Which of the following categories is not part of late adulthood according to some geronotologists?

 

a. young-old

b. old-old

c. old-oldest

d. young-young

63. ___________ refers to physical abuse, financial exploitation, and medical abuse or neglect of people age 65 or older.

 

a. Elder abuse

b. Spousal abuse

c. Child abuse

d. Gender abuse

64. A 66-year-old woman is exploited financially by a bogus company purporting to replace the siding on her home. The actions of this company may be best characterized as:

 

a. fraud.

b. elder abuse.

c. embezzlement.

d. corporate crime.

65. According to a congressional committee on aging, ____________ million older people are the victims of physical or mental abuse each year.

 

a. more than 1.5

b. at least 5

c. more than 10

d. over 25

66. All of the following statements regarding elder abuse are true, except:

 

a. dependency on the part of the older person often leads to elder abuse.

b. abusers tend to be dependent on the older person for financial support and housing.

c. elder abuse tends to be concentrated among those over age 75.

d. many victims of elder abuse are white, middle- to lower-middle-class Protestant women who suffer from some form of impairment.

67. __________ refers to prejudice and discrimination against people on the basis of age.

 

a. Ageism

b. Sexism

c. Racism

d. Gender bias

68. The denial of an employment opportunity due to one's age is an example of:

 

a. gender bias.

b. social discrimination.

c. ageism.

d. gender orientation.

69. Why have some people suggested that we replace the term "domestic violence" with "wife battering" and "wife abuse"?

 

a. Because domestic violence does not happen to men.

b. Such terms encompass broader ranges of acts.

c. Because the term "domestic violence" suggests that women provoke the violence.

d. Because the police do not have a classification for "domestic violence" that permits them to arrest the offender.

70. Most divorces today are granted on the grounds of:

 

a. mental cruelty.

b. alienation of affection.

c. adultery.

d. irreconcilable differences.

71. Approximately 2.4 million marriages take place each year in the United States, and about ________ divorces are granted.

 

a. 500,000

b. 750, 000

c. just under one million

d. 1.2 million

72. At the macrolevel, factors contributing to higher rates of divorce include:

 

a. changes in social institutions like religion and the family.

b. marriage at an early age.

c. a short acquaintanceship before marriage.

d. disapproval of the marriage by relatives and friends.

73. An estimated _______ percent of divorcing couples have one or more children.

 

a. 30

b. 40

c. 50

d. 60

74. All of the following are primary social characteristics of those most likely to get divorced, except:

 

a. marriage at an early age.

b. the presence of children at the beginning of the marriage.

c. cohabitative experience prior to marriage.

d. a high school education or less.

75. Divorce decrees provide for parental joint custody of approximately ______ children annually.

 

a. 25,000

b. 50,000

c. 100,000 to 200,000

d. over one-half million

76. According to the text's discussion of the consequences of divorce:

 

a. divorce not only changes relationships for the couples involved but also for other relatives.

b. for most children, divorce is a difficult experience.

c. for some people, divorce may be an opportunity to terminate destructive relationships.

d. all of the above

77. According to the text's discussion of remarriage:

 

a. most people who divorce do not remarry.

b. among individuals who divorce before age 35, about half will remarry within three years of their first divorce.

c. most divorced people remarry people who have never been married.

d. none of the above.

78. __________ families consist of a husband and wife, children from previous marriages, and children (if any) from the new marriage.

 

a. Complex binuclear

b. Contemporary extended

c. Blended

d. Reconstituted

79. A _________ family is one in which children may have a biological parent and a step-parent, biological siblings and step-siblings, and an array of other relatives including aunts, uncles, and cousins.

 

a. complex binuclear

b. contemporary extended

c. blended

d. reconstituted

80. According to sociologist Andrew Cherlin, the norms governing divorce and remarriage are:

 

a. clear-cut.

b. usually fairly simple.

c. ambiguous.

d. easily discerned.

81. According to sociologist ________________, there is no support for the common assumption that elderly persons who are dependent on their children are more likely to be abused.

 

a. Karl Pillemer

b. Lillian Rubin

c. Robert Butler

d. Alice Rossi

82. Sociologist Lillian Rubin suggests that clinging to a traditional image of families:

 

a. may be precisely what is needed to restore our faith in family solidarity.

b. is hypocritical.

c. is highly desirable.

d. would lower the rate of unplanned, unwanted pregnancies.

83. According to psychologist Bernice Lott, people's perceptions about what constitutes a family:

 

a. will stabilize early on in the next century.

b. are necessarily conflicting.

c. will continue to change in the 21st century.

d. will not materially change from such perceptions today.

84. As members of the Baby Boom generation (born between 1946 and 1964) entered their 30s and 40s, many decided that they wanted to:

 

a. remain single.

b. remain childless.

c. have children.

d. give up.

85. Paul married his high school sweetheart and they have been faithful to each other for 20 years. Their marriage is termed:

 

a. polygamous.

b. homogamous.

c. monogamous.

d. polyandrous.

86. In ten years, John Smith has divorced and remarried five times. Sociologically speaking, Smith exemplifies:

 

a. a blended family.

b. an extended family.

c. the ultimate "player."

d. serial monogamy.

87. Which of the following has not been offered as an explanation for the increase in single living?

 

a. opportunities for a career (especially for women)

b. the belief that the single lifestyle is full of excitement

c. the desire for self-sufficiency and freedom to change and experiment

d. a decline in economic opportunities that makes having a family undesirable

88. Which western nation has the highest teenage pregnancy rate?

 

a. England

b. France

c. Canada

d. the United States

89. According to the text, the major problem of being a single mother is:

 

a. poverty.

b. lack of sexual fulfillment.

c. finding day care.

d. getting married.

90. According to the text, today over _______ percent of all marriages in the United States are dual-earner marriages.

 

a. 30

b. 50

c. 45

d. 20

91. Ron Brown and Sandra Jones are both married for the second time, and Sandra's daughter from her previous marriage lives with them. Sociologically speaking, the Browns are a(n) ________ family.

 

a. extended

b. bi-racial

c. blended

d. modified extended

92. All of the following are factors that led to a 6 percent decline in the two-parent households, except:

 

a. an increase in births among unmarried women.

b. decisions to postpone childbearing.

c. recognition of gay relations as a family.

d. divorce.

93. Which is the most prevalent pattern of power and authority in the family?

 

a. matriarchal

b. patriarchal

c. egalitarian

d. polyandry

94. The __________ is the subdiscipline of sociology that attempts to describe and explain patterns of family life and variations in family structure.

 

a. exogamy

b. family of procreation

c. family of orientation

d. sociology of family

95. According to the text, since 1970, there has been a _______ percent increase in interracial marriages in the United States.

 

a. 76

b. 150

c. 300

d. 200

96. Which of these perspectives would explain family relationships in terms of the subjective meanings and everyday interpretations that people give to their lives?

 

a. postmodern

b. functionalist

c. feminist

d. interactionist

97. According to the text, today some people view cohabitation as a form of:

 

a. blended family.

b. "arranged" marriage.

c. modified family.

d. "trial" marriage.

98. Young adulthood follows adolescence and lasts to about age _______.

 

a. 25

b. 30

c. 39

d. 45

99. Middle adulthood refers to people between the ages of _______.

 

a. 30 and 50

b. 40 and 55

c. 40 and 65

d. 55 and 70

100. According to the National Health and Social Life Survey conducted by the National Opinion Research Center at the University of Chicago:

 

a. 9 percent of the men said they had at least one homosexual encounter resulting in orgasm.

b. 2.8 percent of the men and 1.4 percent of the women in this investigation identified themselves as gay or lesbian.

c. persons who engaged in extramarital sex found their activities to be more thrilling than those with a marital partner, but they also felt more guilt.

d. all of the above