Study Questions for Chapter 10 

 

1. _____________ is the process of treating people as if they were things, rather than human beings.

a. Objectification

b. Reification

c. Mechanization

d. Technological stereotyping

2. All of the following statements regarding women's and men's body images are true, except:

a. both men and women may have negative perceptions about their body size, weight, and appearance.

b. women and men receive different cultural messages about body image.

c. the image of female beauty as childlike and thin is flaunted by the advertising industry.

d. women of all racial ethnic groups, classes, and sexual orientations do not think of their weight as a crucial index of their acceptability to others.

3. All of the following are elements in the objectification of women, except:

a. women are responded to primarily as "females," while their personal qualities and accomplishments are of secondary importance.

b. women are seen as being "all alike."

c. women are seen as independent.

d. women are seen as easily ignored, dismissed, or trivialized.

4. According to the text's discussion of body image and gender:

a. most people have an accurate perception of their own physical appearance.

b. recent studies show that up to 95 percent of men express dissatisfaction with some aspect of their bodies.

c. men do not experience eating problems such as anorexia and bulimia.

d. thinness has always been the "ideal" body image for women.

5. In discussing body image and gender, the text points out that:

a. thinness has always been the "ideal" body image for women.

b. women bodybuilders have gained full acceptance in society.

c. most states have laws prohibiting employment discrimination on the basis of weight.

d. many people do not have a very accurate perception of their own bodies.

6. _________ refer(s) to the biological and anatomical differences between females and males.

a. Sex

b. Gender

c. Primary distinctions

d. Secondary distinctions

7. At birth, male and female infants are distinguished by __________, the genitalia used in the reproductive process.

a. gonads and fallopian tubes

b. primary sex characteristics

c. secondary sex characteristics

d. biological tendencies

8. At puberty, an increased production of hormones results in the development of _____________, the physical traits (other than reproductive organs) that identify an individual's sex.

a. hormonal correlates

b. primary sex characteristics

c. secondary sex characteristics

d. post biological tendencies

9. Which of the following would not be an example of secondary sex characteristics in women?

a. enlarged breasts

b. wider hips

c. menstruation

d. vagina

10. Sexual __________ refer(s) to a preference for emotional sexual relationships with members of the opposite sex (heterosexuality), the same sex (homosexuality), or both (bisexuality).

a. feeling

b. proclivities

c. identification

d. orientation

11. Which of the following terms describes a person in whom sexual differentiation is ambiguous or incomplete?

a. "hermaphrodite"

b. "transsexual"

c. "transvestite"

d. "homosexual"

12. A person who believes that he or she was born with the body of the wrong sex is referred to as a:

a. hermaphrodite.

b. transsexual.

c. transvestite.

d. homosexual.

13. A male who lives as a woman, or a female who lives as a man but does not alter the genitalia is referred to as a:

a. hermaphrodite.

b. transsexual.

c. transvestite.

d. homosexual.

14. When a woman is ignored, dismissed, or trivialized, she is experiencing:

a. discrimination.

b. gender preparedness.

c. sexual identification.

d. objectification.

15. _________ refer(s) to the culturally and socially constructed differences between females and males found in the meanings, beliefs and practices associated with "femininity" and "masculinity."

a. Gender

b. Sex

c. Primary sexual identifiers

d. Secondary sexual identifiers

16. People continually distinguish between males and females and evaluate them differentially. Consequently, the text points out, everything social in our lives is:

a. sexually linked.

b. gendered.

c. hormonally associated.

d. biologically identified.

17. _____________ refers to the attitudes, behaviors, and activities that are socially defined as appropriate for each sex and are learned through the socialization process.

a. Sexual identity

b. Gender identity

c. Gender role

d. Social role

18. In the United States, males traditionally are expected to demonstrate aggressiveness while females have been expected to be passive and nurturing. This illustrates the concept of:

a. sexual identity.

b. gender identity.

c. gender role.

d. biological role.

19. __________ is a person's perception of the self as female or male.

a. Sexual identity

b. Gender identity

c. Body consciousness

d. Gender role

20. ___________ is how a person perceives and feels about his or her body.

a. Sexual identity

b. Gender identity

c. Body consciousness

d. Gender role

21. The text points out that a macro-level analysis of gender examines structural features, external to the individual, that perpetuate gender inequality. These structures have been referred to as:

a. gendered institutions.

b. sexual structures.

c. biological correlates.

d. societal determinants.

22. A __________ system includes all of the ideas regarding masculine and feminine attributes that are held to be valid in a society.

a. sexual image

b. gender belief

c. biological correlate

d. body consciousness

23. Which of the following is not one of the three most common eating problems?

a. anorexia

b. bulimia

c. obesity

d. overeating

24. According to popularly held stereotypes, the primary victims of eating problems are:

a. lower class lesbians of color.

b. middle class Latinas.

c. white, middle class, heterosexual women.

d. African American, heterosexual women.

25. According to the text, bodybuilding:

a. has become less popular among men.

b. is a gendered experience.

c. is predominantly a male activity.

d. has nothing in common with eating problems.

26. _____________ is the subordination of one sex, usually female, based on the assumed superiority of the other sex.

a. Sexual harassment

b. Sexism

c. Patriarchal control

d. Parental control

27. According to the text, sexism is interwoven with ___________--a hierarchical system of social organization in which cultural, political, and economic structures are controlled by men.

a. patriarchy

b. bureaucracy

c. systematic male-discrimination

d. institutionalized, gender-based discrimination

28. The text points out that ___________ is a hierarchical system of social organization in which cultural, political, and economic structures are controlled by women.

a. systematic female discrimination

b. gender bureaucracy

c. matriarchy

d. institutionalized, gender based discrimination

29. According to the text, three factors are important in determining the gendered division of labor in a society. Which of the following in not one of these?

a. the type of subsistence base

b. the proportion of females within the power structure

c. the supply of and demand for labor

d. the extent to which women's childrearing activities are compatible with certain types of work

30. _____________ refers to the means by which a society gains the basic necessities of life, including food, shelter, and clothing.

a. The technoeconomic base

b. The division of labor

c. Subsistence

d. Pastoralism

31. ____________ refers to the level of technology and the organization of the economy in a given society.

a. The technoeconomic base

b. The division of labor

c. Subsistence

d. Pastoralism

32. In most hunting and gathering societies, all of the following statements are true, except:

a. a relatively equitable relationship exists because neither sex has the ability to provide all of the food necessary for survival.

b. women are full economic partners with men.

c. relationships between women and men tend to be cooperative and relatively egalitarian.

d. women do not contribute to food production in these societies.

33. According to the text's discussion of hunting and gathering societies:

a. most of these groups have a fairly complex social stratification system.

b. there are no known hunting and gathering societies left in the world today.

c. a few hunting and gathering societies remain today, but some analysts predict that these groups will cease to exist by the 21st century.

d. women make an important contribution to food production.

34. The text points out that in horticultural societies:

a. people are unable to grow their own food.

b. women do not contribute to food production.

c. there is substantial gender inequality because men control the food supply.

d. none of the above

35. When inadequate moisture in an area makes planting crops impossible, ________--the domestication of large animals--develops.

a. horticulturalism

b. pastoralism

c. agriculture

d. industrialism

36. All of the following are social practices that contribute to gender inequality in horticultural and pastoral societies, except:

a. polygyny.

b. footbinding.

c. bridewealth.

d. menstrual taboos.

37. The text points out that under pastoralism:

a. herding is generally performed by women.

b. women always have very high status.

c. social practices contribute to gender inequality in this type of society.

d. women contribute significantly to subsistence production.

38. ___________ refers to the marriage of one man to multiple wives.

a. Polygyny

b. Polyandry

c. Polygamy

d. Group marriage

39. ____________ refers to the payment of a price by a man for a wife, thus turning women into property that can be bought and sold.

a. Dowry

b. Bridewealth

c. Female slavery

d. Bounty

40. All of the following are characteristics of agrarian societies regarding gender inequality, except:

a. gender inequality and male dominance became institutionalized.

b. genital mutilation of women was practiced.

c. the cult of domesticity.

d. the practice of purdah.

41. The text points out that in agrarian societies:

a. farming is done by animal drawn or energy powered plows and equipment.

b. because most tasks require more labor and greater physical strength than in horticultural societies, men become more involved in food production.

c. women are viewed as too weak for the agrarian labor.

d. all of the above

42. All of the following are practices in agrarian societies that contribute to the subordination of women, except:

a. purdah.

b. suttee.

c. bridewealth.

d. genital mutilation.

43. Under industrialization in the United States, the home became a private, personal sphere in which women created a haven for the family. This social atmosphere was referred as:

a. the subordination of American women.

b. the cult of domesticity or the cult of true womanhood.

c. the "breadwinner-domestic" trend.

d. the domestication of women.

44. The text points out that gender-appropriate behavior is:

a. acquired at birth.

b. fixed and inalterable by age five.

c. learned through the socialization process.

d. difficult for some people to learn.

45. Which of the following statements regarding gender socialization by parents is true?

a. Girls' clothing is more functional than boys' clothing.

b. When girl babies cry, parents respond to them more quickly.

c. Parents are more prone to talk and sing to male infants.

d. Male infants receive more gentle treatment.

46. All of the following statements regarding assignments of chores to children by parents are true, except:

a. maintenance chores are assigned to boys.

b. domestic chores are assigned to girls.

c. chores are not linked to future occupational choices of males and females.

d. girls often are responsible for caring for younger brothers and sisters.

47. Most studies of gender socialization by parents focus on ________ families.

a. African Americans

b. white, middle class

c. working

d. lower

48. In discussing gender socialization, the text points out that:

a. mothers with non-traditional views encourage their daughters to be independent.

b. many fathers also take an active role in socializing their sons to be thoughtful and caring individuals who do not live by traditional gender stereotypes.

c. peers often make non-traditional gender socialization much more difficult for parents and children.

d. all of the above

49. In discussing peers and gender socialization, the text points out that:

a. male peer groups place more pressure on boys to do "masculine" things than female peer groups place on girls to do "feminine" things.

b. female peer groups place more pressure on girls to do "feminine" things than male peer groups place on boys to do "masculine" things.

c. peer groups of both sexes are increasingly egalitarian in the 1990s.

d. none of the above

50. According to the text's discussion of peers and gender socialization:

a. during adolescence, peers are usually less effective agents of gender socialization than are adults.

b. male bonding does not occur until after adolescence is completed.

c. peer acceptance does not appear to be as important to males and females today than it has been in the past.

d. peer groups on college campuses are organized largely around gender relations.

51. In their investigation of college women, anthropologists Dorothy C. Holland and Margaret A. Eisenhart determined that:

a. the peer system propelled women into a world of romance in which their attractiveness to men counted most.

b. the women's peers influenced everything from their choices of majors and careers to their final courses of action in making plans for the future.

c. peer pressure did not involve appearance norms.

d. peer pressure has diminished on college campuses in recent years.

52. "____________" consists of showing favoritism toward one gender over the other.

a. Sexual discrimination

b. Sexual harassment

c. Gender bias

d. Gender preferences

53. In a multiple year study of more than 100 grade school students, education professors Myra and David Sadker identified a number of types of teacher comments that boys received more frequently than girls. Which of the following is not one of these types?

a. praise

b. acceptance

c. denial

d. criticism

54. The text cites a comprehensive study of gender bias in schools, suggesting that girls' self-esteem is undermined in school through a number of experiences. Which of the following in not one of these?

a. a relative lack of attention from teachers

b. direct rejection of instructors

c. the stereotyping and invisibility of females in textbooks, especially in science and math texts

d. test bias based on assumptions about the relative importance of quantitative and visual-spatial ability

55. In discussing gender socialization in college environments, the text points out that:

a. college instructors often pay more attention to women than men in their classes.

b. men are called on less frequently, receive less encouragement, and often are interrupted, ignored, or devalued.

c. one study by the Association of American Colleges found that the college classroom is a "chilly" climate for female students.

d. college instructors are more aware of gender bias than are high school teachers.

56. Among U.S. college and university students:

a. men are more likely than women to earn a college degree.

b. women typically have higher scores on standardized admissions tests like the SAT.

c. at the graduate level, the number of women degree recipients has been increasing consistently over the past decade.

d. women tend to have higher grade point averages in college.

57. In discussing sports and gender socialization, the text points out that:

a. both boys and girls are socialized to participate in highly competitive, rule oriented games with large numbers of participants.

b. boys have been socialized to play exclusively with others of their own age.

c. children spend more than half of their non-school time in play and games, and the types of games played does not differ with the child's sex.

d. in the future, more girls and women will participate in sports formerly regarded as exclusively "male" activities.

58. In discussing women's participation in athletics, the text observes that:

a. women athletes no longer encounter many status conflicts between being "women" and "athletes."

b. few girls and women participate in sports that are regarded as exclusively "male" activities.

c. women college basketball players may deal with status conflict by dividing their lives into segments, as "women" and "athletes."

d. men encourage women's participation in athletics.

59. According to the text's discussion of gender in athletics:

a. women who engage in activities that are assumed to be "masculine" (such as bodybuilding) may either ignore their critics or attempt to redefine the activity or its result as "feminine" or "womanly."

b. some women bodybuilders do not want their bodies to get "overbuilt."

c. women bodybuilders have learned that they are more likely to win competitions if they look and pose along the lines of fashion models.

d. all of the above

60. All of the following statements regarding gender issues and television are true, except:

a. television programs are sex-typed and white-male oriented.

b. in television today, an equal number of male and female roles are depicted.

c. most of the characters in educational programs have male names and masculine voices.

d. the media is a powerful source of gender stereotyping.

61. The text concludes that in prime time television, a number of significant changes in the past three decades have reduced gender stereotyping, including:

a. there is now an equal number of men and women playing leading characters.

b. in recent years, women in professional careers have been overrepresented, which may give an erroneous impression that most women in the work force are in executive, managerial, and professional positions.

c. in most contemporary programs, a woman's appearance is far less important.

d. advertisers have demanded change in television programming to lessen gender stereotyping.

62. Which of the following statements is true regarding adult gender socialization?

a. Employers and co-workers teach men and women "appropriate" conduct for persons of their sex in the workplace.

b. In contemporary societies, women's child care responsibilities are not related to their participation in careers and professions.

c. Middle-aged women and men receive equal respect in the workplace because they can be evaluated on their experience, not on their ascribed statuses.

d. Men's socialization usually includes a measure of whether their work can be successfully combined with having a family.

63. Advertisements and commercials:

a. have no bearing on eating disorders.

b. have a large potential impact on young girls and women by establishing "thin" role models with whom they should identify.

c. are voluntarily changed by advertisers when it is pointed out that they are projecting a negative image of women.

d. have worked to shift the personal to the political as women have attempted to gain power and freedom.

64. _____________ refers to the concentration of women and men in different occupations, jobs, and places of work.

a. The gender ghetto

b. The sexist division

c. Gender segregated work

d. Gender slanting

65. The text points out that in the United States in 1990:

a. 99 percent of all secretaries were women.

b. 92 percent of all engineers were men.

c. to eliminate gender segregated jobs, more than half of all men or all women workers would have to change occupations.

d. all of the above

66. In discussing the gendered division of paid work, the text points out that:

a. the degree of gender segregation in the professional labor market has increased since the 1970s.

b. African American professional women find themselves limited to employment in certain sectors of the labor market.

c. across all categories of occupations, white women and all people of color are now evenly represented.

d. none of the above

67. __________ refers to the division of jobs into categories with distinct working conditions.

a. Genderization

b. Sexual differentiation

c. Labor market segmentation

d. Gender fragmentation

68. All of the following statements regarding gender segregation work are true, except:

a. gender segregated work affects both men and women.

b. men who enter female dominated occupations such as nursing often have to justify themselves and prove that they are "real men."

c. occupational gender segregation does not contribute to stratification in society.

d. the pay gap between men and women is the best documented consequences of gender segregated work.

69. The text points out that occupational segregation contributes to the _____________--the disparity between women's and men's earnings.

a. pay gap

b. sexual wage differentiation

c. comparable worth distinction

d. cult of domesticity

70. Rebecca has an assembly line job in a local factory; it comes to her attention that some men on the line, doing the same work she does, are paid a higher hourly rate. This reflects the principle of:

a. genderization.

b. sexual differentiation.

c. pay equity or comparable worth.

d. pay inequity.

71. In regard to female dominated jobs, sociologists have found that:

a. differences in wage compensation are due to the cultural devaluation of women.

b. both men and women suffer an economic penalty when they work in jobs that employ mostly women.

c. if women were compensated fairly, an employer could not undercut men's wages by hiring women at a cheaper rate.

d. all of the above.

72. The text observes that while most married women now share responsibility for the breadwinner role, many men do not accept their share of domestic responsibilities. Consequently, many women have a(n) "__________."

a. double whammy

b. two-tiered job

c. double day or second shift

d. unbearable burden

73. Consider the following argument: "Women's roles as nurturers and caregivers are even more pronounced in contemporary industrialized societies; this division of family labor ensures that important societal tasks will be fulfilled; it also provides for family members." This reflects the:

a. functionalist perspective.

b. human capital model.

c. conflict perspective.

d. interactionist perspective.

74. All of the following statements regarding functionalist perspectives on gender stratification are true, except:

a. women and men have distinct roles that are important for the survival of the family and society.

b. in industrialized societies, wives perform instrumental tasks while husbands perform the expressive tasks.

c. the most basic division of labor is biological and involves such attributes as physical strength and the ability to bear and nurse children.

d. relationships between men and women are damaged when changes in gender roles occur.

75. According to the human capital model, women as a category earn less money than men because:

. women diminish their earning capacity when they leave the labor market to engage in childbearing and child care activities.

b. men have control of and dominance over women and resources.

c. capitalists reap higher profits by paying women lower wages.

d. women choose lower paying occupations and careers than men.

76. Various neoclassical economic models attribute the wage gap to a number of factors. Which of the following is not one of these?

a. the different amounts of energy that men and women expend on their work

b. the occupational choices that women make

c. the unpredicted popularity of feminism

d. the crowding of too many women into some occupations

77. All of the following regarding functionalist perspectives on gender stratification are true, except:

a. women and men have distinct roles that are important for the survival of the family and society.

b. in industrialized societies, wives perform instrumental tasks while husbands perform the expressive tasks.

c. the most basic division of labor is biological and involves such attributes as physical strength and the ability to bear and nurse children.

d. relationships between men and women are damaged when changes in gender roles occur.

78. According to the human capital model, women as a category earn less money than men because:

a. women diminish their earning capacity when they leave the labor market to engage in childbearing and child care activities.

b. men have control of and dominance over women and resources.

c. capitalists reap higher profits by paying women lower wages.

d. women choose lower paying occupations and careers than men.

79. Various neoclassical economic models attribute the wage gap to a number of factors. Which of the following is not one of these?

a. the different amounts of energy that men and women expend on their work

b. the occupational choices that women make

c. the unpredicted popularity of feminism

d. the crowding of too many women into some occupations

80. All of the following are criticisms of functionalist and neoclassical economic perspectives, except:

a. problems inherent in traditional gender roles are minimized by this approach.

b. these models fail to critically assess the structures of society that make educational and occupational opportunities more available to some than to others.

c. these approaches fail to examine the underlying power relations between men and women.

d. these approaches overemphasize the differences between women and men without taking into account the commonalties.

81. According to the text, wage discrimination occurs in a number of ways. Which of the following is not one of these?

a. The wage differences may be attributed to key features of industrialized societies.

b. The wages are higher in male dominated jobs, occupations, and segments of the labor market, regardless of whether women take time for family duties.

c. In any job, women and people of color will be paid less.

d. All of the above are reasons cited in the text for wage discrimination.

82. According to the conflict perspective on gender stratification:

a. in hunting and gathering and horticultural societies, male dominance over women accumulates steadily due to survival demands.

b. the gendered division of labor within families and in the workplace results from male control of and dominance over women and resources.

c. in agrarian societies, male sexual dominance is almost nonexistent.

d. gender stratification can be explained using the human capital model.

83. Conflict theorists in the Marxian tradition assert that:

a. gender stratification results from public ownership of the means of production.

b. some women gain control over property and the distribution of goods.

c. marriage serves to enforce male dominance.

d. men's ability to use physical power to control women increases in industrial societies.

84. __________ is the belief that women and men are equal and that they should be valued equally and have equal rights.

a. Sexual freedom

b. Feminism

c. Women's liberation

d. Women's rights

85. In liberal feminism:

a. gender equality is equated with equality of opportunity.

b. male domination causes all forms of human oppression, including racism and classism.

c. women's oppression results from their dual roles as paid and unpaid workers.

d. women of color experience a different world than other people because of oppression based on race, ethnicity, gender, and class.

86. In African American feminism:

a. gender equality is equated with equality of opportunity.

b. male domination causes all forms of human oppression, including racism and classism.

c. women's oppression results from their dual roles as paid and unpaid workers.

d. women of color experience a different world than other people because of oppression based on race, ethnicity, gender, and class.

87. In radical feminism:

a. gender equality is equated with equality of opportunity.

b. male domination causes all forms of human oppression, including racism and classism.

c. women's oppression results from their dual roles as paid and unpaid workers.

d. women of color experience a different world than other people because of oppression based on race, ethnicity, gender, and class.

88. In socialist feminism:

a. gender equality is equated with equality of opportunity.

b. male domination causes all forms of human oppression, including racism and classism.

c. women's oppression results from their dual roles as paid and unpaid workers.

d. women of color experience a different world than other people because of oppression based on race, ethnicity, gender, and class.

89. A women's group fights for better child care options, women's right to choose an abortion, and the elimination of sex discrimination in the workplace, arguing that the roots of women's oppression lie in women's lack of equal civil rights and educational opportunities. The platform of this group reflects:

a. black (African American) feminism.

b. socialist feminism.

c. radical feminism.

d. liberal feminism.

90. A community leader argues in favor of women's organizations seeking better health and day care and shelters for victims of domestic violence, pointing out that in order for women's conditions to improve, patriarchy must be abolished. This leader's point of view is reflected in:

a. black (African American) feminism.

b. socialist feminism.

c. radical feminism.

d. liberal feminism.

91. A woman argues that the only way to achieve gender equality is to eliminate capitalism and develop an economy that would bring equal pay and equal rights to women. This argument reflects:

a. black (African American) feminism.

b. socialist feminism.

c. radical feminism.

d. liberal feminism.

92. A woman argues that race, class, and gender are forces that simultaneously oppress African American women. This reflects:

a. black (African American) feminism.

b. socialist feminism.

c. radical feminism.

d. liberal feminism.

93. Feminists who analyze race, class, and gender suggest that equality will occur only when:

a. capitalism disappears.

b. all women, regardless of their backgrounds, are treated more equitably.

c. socialism is instituted on a widespread basis.

d. patriarchy is dismantled.

94. According to the text, conflict and feminist perspectives:

a. emphasize factors external to individuals that contribute to the oppression of white women and people of color.

b. have been criticized for overemphasizing the commonalties shared by men and women.

c. have been criticized for ignoring male dominance.

d. view the gendered division of labor as natural and perhaps inevitable.

95. According to the text's discussion of gender issues in the 21st century:

a. in the past 30 years, women have made significant progress in the labor force.

b. sexual discrimination in the workplace and in our school systems has been ignored in the legislature.

c. fewer and fewer women are entering the political arena as candidates rather than volunteers.

d. most gendered issues are in the process of being resolved.

96. All of the following statements regarding gender issues in the 21st century are true, except:

a. many men have joined movements to raise their consciousness about men's concerns and the need to eliminate sexism and gender bias.

b. men always benefit when women are paid lower wages in the labor force.

c. gender segregation will increase if the number of female dominated jobs continues to grow.

d. if the number of "men's jobs" shrinks in the future, women may have greater difficulty overcoming resistance to their entry into these occupations.

97. According to the text, the pay gap between men and women should:

a. intensify in the 21st century.

b. continue to shrink, due in part to decreasing wages paid to men.

c. disappear by the first decade of the 21st century.

d. no longer be an issue in the 21st century.

98. Why should the pay gap be shrinking in years to come?

a. because of the decreasing wages paid to men

b. because new legislation prohibits unequal pay for unequal work

c. because men are refusing to accept the pay gap

d. none of the above

99. A(n) ___________ society is one in which factory or mechanized production has replaced agriculture as the major form of economic activity.

a. information

b. horticultural

c. domesticated

d. industry

100. According to Australian sociologist _________________, the high value of technology, in terms of the material rewards that expertise in this area brings, is bestowed more on men than on women.

a. Crocodile Dundee

b. Margaret Mead

c. Judy Wajcman

d. Jane Addams