Chapter 14 – Medical Sociology
1. ____________ is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being.
b. Emotionally stable
d. Health care
2. ____________ is any activity intended to improve health.
a. Health care
c. Driving your neighbor
3. Joining a health spa to improve one's physical health illustrates a form of:
c. health care.
4. According to the text, Sweden spends an average of $1,348 per person on health care and has an infant mortality rate of ______; by contrast, the United States has an infant mortality rate of _____.
a. 5.5; 6.7
b. 4.5; 6.7
c. 3.5; 4.5
d. 7.8; 3.9
5. The __________ is the number of deaths of infants under one year of age per 1,000 live births in a given year.
a. life expectancy
b. disease death rate
c. infant mortality rate
d. social epidemiology
6. __________ is an institutionalized system for the scientific diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of illness.
b. Case management
c. Social work
d. Medical social work
7. The World Health Organization reports that about ____ million babies born in developing countries during 1995 died during the first month of life.
8. According to the text, a child born in Rwanda in 1996 had a life expectancy of 40.1 years compared with a ______ year life expectancy of a child born the same year in Japan.
9. Life ____________ is an estimate of the average lifetime of people born in a specific year.
10. Social _____________ is the study of the causes and distribution of health, disease, and impairment throughout a population.
11. All of the following are disease agents, except:
12. ____________ illnesses are illnesses that are long term or lifelong and that develop gradually or are present from birth.
13. All of the following statements regarding chronic illnesses are true, except:
a. two of the most common sources of chronic disease and premature death are tobacco use and alcohol abuse.
b. the cost of caring for many of these people--especially those who must be institutionalized--will increase in at least direct proportion to their numbers.
c. that the rates of chronic diseases increase rapidly after the age of 65.
d. two of the most common sources of chronic disease and premature death are sex abuse and gender related diseases.
14. According to sociologist Ingrid Waldon, as a result of gender role/socialization, which of the following statements are true about men?
a. Males are more likely than females to make use of the health care system.
b. Males are more likely to communicate their feelings than females.
c. Males are more likely than females to work in dangerous occupations.
d. Males are more likely than females to gossip and watch soap operas.
15. According to the text, in a study of the mortality experience over a 28-year period of a random sample of African American and white males 35 years of age or older when the study began, _____ had no significant effect on mortality, whereas socioeconomic status appeared to be a major factor.
16. According to the text, one of the ways that drugs are used is for ___________ purposes.
c. slow the aging process
17. It is a part of our culture to celebrate happy occasions such as a job promotion with a drink. This example exemplifies alcohol usage as a form of:
c. business expectation.
d. rite of passage.
18. ____________ refers to a progressive development of scar tissue that chokes off blood vessels in the liver and destroys liver cells by interfering with their use of oxygen.
a. Alcoholic cirrhosis
b. Cardiovascular problems
c. Nutritional deficiencies
19. According to the text, ______ percent account for roughly half the total alcohol consumption in the United States.
20. According to the text's discussion of HIV/AIDS in global-human perspective:
a. worldwide, most people with AIDS are gay men.
b. infants who are born HIV-positive do not live past infancy or early childhood.
c. some people get AIDS from sharing toilets, toothbrushes, eating utensils, and razors.
d. it is not transmitted by casual contact such as shaking hands.
21. ________________ refers to smoke in the air inhaled by nonsmokers as a result of other people's tobacco use.
a. Primary tobacco smoke
c. Chewing tobacco
d. Snuff products
22. In 1858, German pathologist Rudolph Virchow published _____________, describing his findings that disease occurs at a cellular level.
a. Birth of a Nation
b. Cellular cyberspace
c. Cellular development
d. Cellular pathology
23. This famous chemist and microbiologist was noted for his studies on how germs caused disease.
a. Emile Durkheim
b. Dr. Spock
c. Louis Pasteur
d. William Morton
24. This German physicist discovered invisible electromagnetic rays that could be used to map structures within the body; he called them x-rays.
a. Karl Landsteiner
b. William Theis
c. Abraham Flexner
d. Wilhelm Roentgen
25. This Austrian pathologist discovered the A, B, and O blood groups and created a blood-typing system that allowed safe transfusions.
a. Karl Landsteiner
b. Crocodile Dundee
c. Karl Dundee
d. Jane Landstiener
26. All of the following statements regarding the Flexner report are true, except:
a. all but two of the African American medical schools then in existence were closed.
b. only one of the medical schools for women survived.
c. it was not until the civil rights and women's movements of the 1800s that people of color were allowed to become physicians.
d. Flexner maintained that a medical school should be a full-time, research-oriented, and laboratory facility.
27. According to the text, all of the following are characteristics of the medical profession, except:
a. fee for service.
28. Which of the statements represent the good side of the fee-for-service approach utilized in medical care services?
a. It has resulted in stagnated services in medical care.
b. It has a two-tier system of medical care.
c. It has resulted in remarkable advances in medicine such as bloodless surgery and the use of robots in surgery.
d. Cost is no object in the obtaining of medical care in the United States.
29. According to the text, part of the reason that the cost of fee-for-service health care in the United States escalated rapidly was the expansion of:
b. increase in the population.
c. medical insurance programs.
d. computing medical records.
30. According to medical sociologist Paul Starr:
a. third-party fee-for-service is the main reason for medical inflation because it gives doctors and hospitals an incentive to increase medical services.
b. the principle supply and demand (health care providers compete against each other).
c. many patients simply depend on the advice of their physicians.
d. Medicare and Medicaid has made it unnecessary to worry about cost.
31. __________ provide, for a set monthly fee, total care with an emphasis on prevention to avoid costly treatment later.
a. Public health programs
b. Social welfare programs
c. Health maintenance organizations
d. Behavioral health organizations
32. Which of the following organizations exemplifies an HMO?
a. hospitals affiliated with a Blue Cross plan
b. Reynolds corporation
c. L.A. community college district
d. Rio medical provider
33. _________________ is any system of cost containment that closely monitors and controls health care providers' decisions about medical procedures, diagnostic tests, and other services that should be provided to patients.
a. Managed care
b. Social care
c. Behavioral health services
d. Universal care
34. According to a study conducted by the Harvard School of Public Health, _____ adults were uninsured in 1995.
35. The working poor constitute a substantial portion of the uninsured and, according to the text, ________ of the uninsured hold full-time jobs.
36. __________ refers to a health care system in which all citizens receive medical services paid for by tax revenues.
a. Managed care
b. Selective care
c. Universal care
d. Social care
37. Which of the following countries is noted for its use of Universal health care?
c. United States
38. According to the text, all of the following statements represent criticism of the Canadian health care system, except:
a. it is costly and often wasteful.
b. it allows too many visits to doctors by patients.
c. doctors can increase their income by ordering extensive tests.
d. all revenues generated for the health programs are by Canadian corporations.
39. __________ refers to a health care system in which the government owns the medical care facilities and employs the physicians.
a. Universal care
b. Managed care
c. Socialized medicine
d. Public supported programs
40. __________ is an approach to health care that focuses on prevention of illness and disease and is aimed at treating the whole person, body and mind, rather than just the part or parts in which symptoms occur.
a. Holistic medicine
b. Managed care
c. Public sector care
d. Private sector care
41. All of the following are forms of alternative medicine, except:
c. spiritual therapy.
d. pill therapy.
42. ___________ role is the set of patterned expectations that defines the norms and values appropriate for individuals who are sick and for those who interact with them.
43. According to sociologist Talcott Parsons, all of the following are characteristic of the "sick role," except:
a. persons who are sick are not responsible for their condition.
b. persons who assume the sick role are permanently exempt from their normal roles and obligations.
c. persons who are sick must want to get well.
d. persons who are sick must seek competent help from a medical professional to hasten their recovery.
44. According to the ___________ perspective, the sick role exempts the patient from routine activities for a period of time but assumes that the individual will seek appropriate medical attention and get well as soon as possible.
45. One of the criticism of Talcott Parsons' analysis of the sick role is that:
a. it does not take into account racial-ethnic, gender, and class variations in the ways that people view illness and interpret this role.
b. his view of the sick role was path-breaking when it was introduced.
c. he made a major contribution to our understanding of how the sick role impacted illness-related behavior.
d. it explained how physicians attained their gatekeeper status.
46. According to the text, individuals who do not earn enough to afford private medical care are referred to as:
a. welfare participants.
b. social misfits.
c. vertically challenged individuals.
d. medically indigent.
47. According to ______________ theorists, physicians--who hold a monopoly over medicine--benefit from the existing structure because they can charge inflated fees.
48. Unlike the functionalist approach, ____________ theorists emphasizes the political, economic, and social forces that affect health care delivery system.
49. Physicians are often referred to as "__________" of the sick role.
c. social workers
d. behavioral health workers
50. Which of the following statements relates to "gatekeeping"?
a. People without health insurance may not have the option of assuming the sick role.
b. Patients are on equal status with the physician.
c. When patients seek the advice of a physician, they enter into the patient-physician relationship which does not contain equal power for both parties.
d. Physicians are not required to do more than four years of training.
51. The _______________ complex encompasses both local physicians and hospitals as well as global health-related industries such as insurance companies and pharmaceutical and medical supply companies that deliver health care today.
b. medically indigent
c. sick role
d. socially needy
52. The term "____________" refers to the process whereby non-medical problems become defined and treated as illnesses and disorders.
b. philosophical differences
c. medically indigent
53. The text points out that medicalization may occur on all levels, except:
a. the conceptual level.
b. the social level.
c. the institutional level.
d. the interactional level.
54. According to ______________, we socially construct "health" and "illness" and how both should be treated.
55. ____________ refers to a problem that no longer retains its medical definition.
56. The interactionists are criticized for:
a. overemphasizing macro-level without giving adequate recognition to micro-level issues such as the changing environment of health care.
b. suggesting that there are only subjective medical answers for illnesses.
c. overemphasizing micro-level without giving adequate recognition to macro-level issues such as the changing environment of health care.
d. passing on medical technology to other systems.
57. According to journalist Joel Millman, ____________ is a strong magnet for immigrants, who are often employed as nurses, nurses aides, technicians, orderlies, and cleaners.
a. social work
c. hospital work
d. house work
58. Hospital work is the modern equivalent of ________ work for at least two generations of ___________ Americans, and quite logical in a country that has seen manufacturing decline while the business of health care delivery has exploded.
a. social work; Native
b. case work; African
c. house work; Asian
d. factory; Caribbean
59. The use of herbs in medical practice is referred to as __________ medicine.
d. a and c
60. Which sociological perspective points out that "dumping" of patients by hospitals is especially likely to hurt those people at the bottom of stratification hierarchies based on social class, race and ethnicity, gender and age?
a. feminist perspective
b. postmodern perspective
c. conflict perspective
d. interactionist perspective
61. Which program is a noncontributory federal and state insurance plan for the poor?
62. Which sociological perspective emphasizes that students are molded by the medical school environment as they deal with their classmates?
63. Which sociologist perspective stresses that the dramatic differences in infant mortality rates around the world reflect, at least in part, unequal distribution of health care resources based on the wealth or poverty of various communities and nations?
64. Which sociological perspective is most likely to put forth the theory that health care is influenced by values and norms of a society or subculture?
65. The study of the distribution of disease, impairment, and general health status across a population is known as:
a. social epidemiology.
b. social work.
c. human services.
d. cultural transmission.
66. Which term refers to the incidence of death in a given population?
a. poverty rate
b. incidence rate
c. mortality rate
d. epidemiology rate
67. Sociologist Talcott Parsons suggests that the doctor-patient relationship is like that between:
68. The sub-discipline of ____________ is the study of health, healing, and the institutional responses to perceived illness and disease.
a. medical social work
b. biological health care
c. medical sociology
69. All of the following are sexual transmitted diseases, except:
b. genital herpes.
d. pneumonia from HIV/AIDS.