Chapter 12 Education and Religion

1. According to the text's discussion of religion's impact on U.S. education:


a. the Constitution of the United States originally specified that religion should be taught in public schools.

b. virtually all sociologists have advocated the separation of moral teaching from academic subject matter.

c. parochial schools have decreased in enrollment as interest in religion has waned in the United States.

d. conservative religious groups have targeted school board seats as a way of gaining control of public education in some cities.

2. According to the text's discussion of religion's impact on U.S. education:


a. debates over textbook content focus only on elementary education because of the vulnerability of young children.

b. most members of the Baby Boom generation have no religion today because they received no religion instruction in school.

c. the number of children from religious backgrounds other than Christianity and Judaism has grown steadily in public schools over the past three decades.

d. the issue of school prayer will be resolved early in the 21st century.

3. Education is the social institution responsible for the systematic transmission of knowledge, skills, and cultural values within a(n) ________ structure.


a. informal

b. formally organized

c. rigidly constructed

d. traditional

4. In developed societies, knowledge and skills are related to:


a. hunting and gathering.

b. self-preservation.

c. the requirements of the job market.

d. a philosophical understanding of the world and our place in it.

5. According to the text's discussion of sociological perspectives on education:


a. interactionists focus on classroom dynamics and the effect of self-concept on grades and aspirations.

b. functionalists argue that education perpetuates social inequality and benefits the dominant class at the expense of all others.

c. conflict theorists suggest that education contributes to the maintenance of society and provides people with an opportunity for self-enhancement and upward social mobility.

d. feminists do not focus on education as a topic for research.

6. Some purposes of education are _____________--open, stated, and intended goals or consequences of activities within an organization or institution.


a. latent functions

b. manifest functions

c. purposeful

d. planned

7. All of the following are manifest functions of education, except:


a. socialization.

b. transmission of culture.

c. maintaining the status quo.

d. social control.

8. By kindergarten, children learn the appropriate attitudes and behavior for the student role. This illustrates which manifest function of education?


a. socialization

b. transmission of culture

c. social control

d. change and innovation

9. Schools play an active part in the process of assimilation. This illustrates which manifest function of education?


a. socialization

b. transmission of culture

c. social control

d. change and innovation

10. Schools are responsible for teaching values such as discipline, respect, obedience, punctuality, and perseverance. This illustrates which manifest function of education?


a. socialization

b. transmission of culture

c. social control

d. social placement

11. Schools are responsible for identifying the most qualified people to fill available positions in society. This illustrates which manifest function of education?


a. change and innovation

b. transmission of culture

c. social control

d. social placement

12. As student populations change over time, new educational programs are introduced to meet societal needs. This illustrates which manifest function of education?


a. socialization

b. transmission of culture

c. change and innovation

d. social placement

13. All social institutions, including education, have some ____________--hidden, unstated, and sometimes unintended consequences of activities within an organization or institution.


a. manifest function

b. latent function

c. indirect purposes

d. subjective goals

14. All of the following are latent functions of education, except:


a. restricting some activities.

b. matchmaking and production of social network.

c. creation of a generation gap.

d. coordinating the timing of Baby Booms.

15. Education keeps students off the street and out of the full-time job market for a number of years, thus helping keep unemployment within reasonable bounds. This illustrates which latent function of education?


a. matchmaking and production of social network

b. creation of a generation gap

c. change and innovation

d. restriction of some activities

16. ____________ refers to social assets that include values, beliefs, attitudes, and competencies in language and culture.


a. Cultural capital

b. The proper social grace

c. Accumulated social wisdom

d. Cultural baggage

17. "Proper" attitudes toward education, socially approved dress and manners, and knowledge about books, art, music, and other forms of high and popular culture all exemplify:


a. a cultural mystique.

b. the proper social grace.

c. accumulated social wisdom.

d. cultural capital.

18. ___________ refers to the assignment of students to specific courses and educational programs based on their test scores, previous grades, or both.


a. Age grading

b. Intelligence grouping

c. Tracking

d. Ability segregation

19. The transmission of cultural values and attitudes, such as conformity and obedience to authority, through implied demands found in rules, routines, and regulations of schools, is known as a(n):


a. tracking system.

b. hidden curriculum.

c. latent function.

d. educational indoctrination.

20. All of the following statements regarding social class and the hidden curriculum are true, except:


a. teachers from a higher class background than their students tend to use less structure in the classroom.

b. teachers from a higher class background than their students tend to have lower expectations for students' academic achievement.

c. schools for middle class students stress the processes involved in getting the right answer.

d. schools for working-class students emphasize procedures and rote memorization.

21. ____________ is a process of social selection in which class advantage and social status are linked to the procession of academic qualifications.


a. Credentialism

b. Tracking

c. The hidden curriculum

d. Ability grouping

22. In a(n) __________, people who acquire the appropriate credentials for a job are assumed to have gained the position through what they know, not who they know.


a. tracking orientation

b. credentialist orientation

c. meritocracy

d. educational bureaucracy

23. In regard to gender bias and the hidden curriculum, the text points out that:


a. through reading materials, classroom activities, and treatment by teachers and peers, female students learn that they are more important than male students.

b. over time, differential treatment undermines females' self-esteem and discourages them from taking certain courses, such as math and science.

c. teachers tend to give boys less attention, encouraging girls to take the lead.

d. teachers encourage girls more than boys to be problem solvers.

24. According to the text's discussion of unequal funding as a source of inequality in education:


a. of the small proportion of school funding that comes from the federal government, most funds are earmarked for special programs that specifically target students or students with disabilities.

b. most educational funds are derived from state and federal taxes.

c. the property tax base for central city schools has continued to grow in most regions.

d. recent redistribution of funds have made many schools' resources more equitable than in the past.

25. One plan that has been suggested in order to improve educational funding is the __________ system, which allow students and their families to spend a specified sum of government money to purchase education at the school of their choice.


a. tracking

b. voucher

c. ability grouping

d. claimant

26. __________ illiteracy refers to a lack of the ability to read or write or to make sense of written material.


a. Basic

b. Fundamental

c. Functional

d. Dysfunctional

27. According to the text's discussion of religion and women's literacy in developing nations, all of the following are factors that can contribute to women's illiteracy, except:


a. religious beliefs that subordinate women.

b. religious beliefs that emphasize a traditional gendered division of labor.

c. religious beliefs that encourage the use of family planning and birth control.

d. poverty.

28. According to the text's discussion of segregation in our nation's schools:


a. efforts to bring about desegregation and integration have succeeded in practically all parts of the country.

b. in already integrated schools, tracking and ability grouping serve to maintain integration.

c. the educational system has eliminated the disadvantages of race and class.

d. dropout rates remain very high in low income, segregated, central city and rural schools.

29. According to the text's discussion of class, race, and social reproduction in higher education:


a. the cost of attending community colleges, state colleges, and state universities has increased dramatically over the past decade.

b. since the 1980s, the enrollment of low-income students in junior and community colleges has risen substantially.

c. the increased availability of scholarships has led students from low-income backgrounds being just as likely to attend prestigious private colleges as their more affluent counterparts.

d. Latinos and African Americans now attend college at about the same rates as their proportional representation in the U.S. population.

30. Sociologists examining education from an interactionist perspective may focus on:


a. the hidden curriculum.

b. the manifest and latent functions of education.

c. how education reproduces the existing class structure.

d. the interpretations that students and teachers give to their relationships with each other.

31. A __________ is an unsubstantiated belief or prediction resulting in behavior that makes the originally false belief come true.


a. self-fulfilling prophecy

b. learning disability

c. defeating perception

d. fallacy of reasoning

32. In the United States, the issue of IQ and race/ethnicity first arose in regard to:


a. African American soldiers during World War II who scored lower on the Armed Forces Qualification Test.

b. Latino college entrants who scored lower on the SAT test during the 1960s.

c. early 20th century immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe who scored lower on IQ tests than Northern Europeans.

d. testing Native Americans by British Americans (WASPs).

33. According to Richard J. Herrnstein and Charles Murray, intelligence is:


a. strictly an environmental phenomenon.

b. genetically inherited.

c. not related to a person's racial-ethnic group "intelligence genes."

d. not something that can be measured accurately.

34. According to labeling theory, terms such as "learning disabled" are:


a. social constructions that lead to stigmatization and may be incorporated into the everyday interactions of teachers, students, and parents.

b. scientific concepts that have been employed to great advantage by school counselors, psychologists, teachers, and administrative staff.

c. helpful identifiers in dealing with children with these kinds of problems.

d. none of the above

35. All of the following statements regarding education and labeling are true, except:


a. a self-fulfilling prophecy may result from the labeling of students by schools.

b. labeling students as "gifted" may result in discrimination against these students.

c. Asian Americans have always benefited from being labeled a "model minority."

d. studies of girls labeled as gifted have found that many routinely deny their intelligence because they believe that academic achievement might keep them from being popular with others.

36. Some analysts suggest that girls receive subtle cues from adults that lead them to attribute success to ___________, while boys learn to attribute success to their intelligence and ability.


a. effort

b. good looks

c. sexual attractiveness

d. intellect

37. Some analysts argue that boys and girls who are high in achievement may be the victims of _____________--hostility or opposition toward persons assumed to have great mental ability or toward subject matter thought to necessitate significant intellectual ability or knowledge for its comprehension.


a. brain-based hatred

b. anti-intellectualism

c. the "Doogie Howser syndrome"

d. none of the above

38. The text points out that religion:


a. is a system of beliefs, symbols, and rituals.

b. is based on some sacred or supernatural realm.

c. guides human behavior, gives meaning to life, and unites believers into a community.

d. all of the above

39. According to Emile Durkheim, the ________ refers to those aspects of life that are extraordinary or supernatural.


a. profane

b. spiritual

c. sacred

d. magical

40. According to Emile Durkheim, the _________ refers to the everyday, secular, or "worldly" aspects of life.


a. profane

b. anti-spiritual

c. sacred

d. mundane

41. Among some African people, it is thought that, by eating the meat of a Bengal tiger, one may be able to acquire the courage attributed to that animal. This belief reflects what Emile Durkheim called the:


a. profane.

b. sacred.

c. magical.

d. supernatural.

42. Advocates of evolutionism maintain that their point of view is based on provable scientific facts. This secular belief system reflects what Emile Durkheim called the:


a. profane.

b. sacred.

c. anti-spiritual.

d. mundane.

43. The text points out that people often act out their religious beliefs in the form of ______________--symbolic actions that represent religious meanings.


a. sacred ceremonies

b. supernatural rites

c. rituals

d. magical rites

44. All of the following are categories of religion, except:


a. simple supernaturalism.

b. animism.

c. theism.

d. transubstantiation.

45. __________ refers to the belief that supernatural forces affect people's lives either positively or negatively.


a. Simple supernaturalism

b. Animism

c. Theism

d. Transubstantiation

46. __________ is the belief that plants, animals, or other elements of the natural world are endowed with spirits or life forces having an impact on events in society.


a. Theism

b. Animism

c. Simple supernaturalism

d. Transubstantiation

47. __________ is identified with early hunting and gathering societies and with many Native American societies, in which everyday life was not separated from the elements of the natural world.


a. Transcendent idealism

b. Theism

c. Animism

d. Simple supernaturalism

48. __________ refers to a belief in a god or gods.


a. Deism

b. Simple supernaturalism

c. Transcendent idealism

d. Theism

49. __________ refers to a belief in a single supreme being or god who is responsible for significant events such as the creation of the world.


a. Transcendent idealism

b. Monotheism

c. Polytheism

d. Unit theism

50. Which of the following religions is not monotheistic?


a. Hinduism

b. Christianity

c. Judaism

d. Islam

51. __________ refers to a belief in more than one god.


a. Multitheism

b. Masstheism

c. Polytheism

d. Transcendent theism

52. __________ is a belief in sacred principles of thought and conduct.


a. Theism

b. Animism

c. Transcendent idealism

d. Simple supernaturalism

53. As a category of religion, transcendent idealism is:


a. nontheistic.

b. polytheistic.

c. monotheistic.

d. masstheistic.

54. All of the following are examples of polytheism, except:


a. Hinduism.

b. Shinto.

c. a number of indigenous religions of Africa.

d. Islam.

55. __________ is the process by which religious beliefs, practices, and institutions lose their significance in sectors of society and culture.


a. Anti-religiosity

b. Secularization

c. Detheification

d. Religious reductionism

56. Religious beliefs and rituals are __________ representations--group-held meanings that express something important about the group itself.


a. core

b. rigid

c. collective

d. otherwise meaningless

57. From a functionalist perspective, all of the following are functions of religion, except:


a. providing meaning and purpose to life.

b. promoting social cohesion and a sense of belonging.

c. providing social control and support for the government.

d. preventing anarchy.

58. Political leaders often use religion to justify their decisions, stating that they have prayed for guidance in deciding what to do. This informal relationship between religion and the state has been referred to as:


a. the spiritualization of politics.

b. civil religion.

c. political religion.

d. affirmation politics.

59. __________ is the set of beliefs, rituals, and symbols that make sacred the values of the society and place the nation in the context of the ultimate system of meaning.


a. Civil religion

b. Affirmational principles

c. Spiritualization

d. National spirit

60. According to the text's discussion of civil religion:


a. civil religion is tied to the most popular religious group in a society.

b. because of secularization, all civil ceremonies in the United States lack any religious quality.

c. the United States flag is the primary sacred object of the nation's religion.

d. few attempts have been made to eliminate civil religion from public life because of widespread consensus on this issue.

61. In his studies of civil religion, sociologist Robert Bellah points out that:


a. civil religion is the same thing as Christianity.

b. civil religion is limited to affirmations that members of any denomination can accept.

c. true religion is trivialized by civil religion.

d. those who do not believe the existence of God can still believe in civil religion.

62. According to Karl Marx, the capitalist class uses religious ideology as a tool of domination to mislead the workers about their true interests. In this regard, Marx referred to religion as the "__________" of the masses.


a. opiate

b. puzzle

c. falsehood

d. ideology

63. According to Karl Marx, religion unites the masses under a "__________" that they share common interests with members of the dominant class.


a. comforting umbrella

b. false consciousness

c. silver lining

d. fool's gold ring

64. Karl Marx contended that religion:


a. could be a catalyst to produce social change.

b. retards social change.

c. serves no function in society.

d. may serve either a priestly or a prophetic function.

65. According to Max Weber, the rise of capitalism was directly related to:


a. the fall of communism.

b. the economic philosophy of Karl Marx.

c. the doctrine of conspicuous consumption.

d. the religious teaching of John Calvin.

66. The doctrine of __________ is the belief that, even before they are born, all people are divided into two groups, the saved and the damned, and only God knows who will go to heaven (the elect) and who will go to hell.


a. eternal salvation

b. constant grace

c. predestination

d. divine intervention

67. According to the __________, those who have faith, perform good works, and achieve economic success are more likely to be among the chosen of God.


a. doctrine of divine intervention

b. doctrine of eternal salvation

c. doctrine of constant grace

d. Protestant ethic

68. According to Calvinist religious teachings, wealth:


a. was the major reason for religious piety and hard work.

b. was the unintended consequence of religious piety and hard work.

c. should be spent by people in pleasurable pursuits so that they will be motivated to continue their hard work and continual striving for success.

d. was unrelated to religious piety and hard work.

69. According to the ____________ perspective, religion is used by the dominant classes to impose their own control over society and its resources.


a. atheistic

b. functionalist

c. conflict

d. interactionist

70. The interactionist perspective on religion focuses on:


a. how religion is used by the dominant classes to impose their own control over society and its resources.

b. discord between religious groups or between a religious group and the larger society.

c. the function that religious teachings and practices serve for individuals and society.

d. the meanings that people give to religion in their everyday lives.

71. According to the interactionist perspective, religious symbols:


a. have lost their meaning for most people in contemporary societies.

b. have meaning for large bodies of people for whom religion serves as a reference group to help them define themselves.

c. are used by the powerful to exploit the powerless.

d. have meaning for adults but not children.

72. According to the text, all of the following statements regarding the relationship between gender and religion are true, except:


a. most women and men within the same religious group interpret religion in the same way.

b. religious symbolism and language typically create a social definition of the roles of men and women.

c. language has defined women as being nonexistent in the world's religions.

d. the meaning of being Jewish may be different for women than for men.

73. In discussing gender issues and religion, the text points out that the Hindu goddess Kali represents:


a. women's fundamental power.

b. men's eternal battle against the evils of materialism.

c. women's place in the community.

d. men's dependence on women.

74. The __________ is a religious organization that is so integrated into the dominant culture that it claims as its membership all members of a society.


a. ecclesia

b. church

c. sect

d. denomination

75. All of the following can be classified as official or state religions that come fairly close to being ecclesia, except:


a. the Anglican church in England.

b. the Lutheran church in Sweden and Denmark.

c. the Roman Catholic church in the United States.

d. Islam in Iran and Pakistan.

76. A(n) ___________ is a large, bureaucratically organized religious organization that tends to seek accommodation with the larger society in order to maintain some degree of control over it.


a. ecclesia

b. church

c. sect

d. denomination

77. In regard to the church, the text points out that:


a. church membership is based largely on birth.

b. leadership is hierarchically arranged within a bureaucratic organizational structure.

c. church services appeal to the emotion rather than the intellect.

d. churches make little effort to maintain any control over the larger society.

78. A(n) _____________ is a large organized religion characterized by accommodation to society but frequently lacking in ability or intention to dominate society.


a. ecclesia

b. church

c. sect

d. denomination

79. According to the text, denominations:


a. have a trained ministry.

b. tend to be less tolerant than churches.

c. are more likely than churches to expel or excommunicate members.

d. seek to renew the original version of the faith.

80. Denominational organization is most likely to thrive in societies characterized by religious:


a. pluralism.

b. homogeneity.

c. dogma.

d. restraint.

81. ___________ has more denominations than any other nation.


a. England

b. The United States

c. Spain

d. Japan

82. A ___________ is a relatively small religious group that has broken away from another religious organization to renew what it views as the original version of the faith.


a. church

b. denomination

c. sect

d. cult

83. Which of the following comparisons of the church-sect typology is true?


a. Churches offer members a more personal religion than do sects.

b. Sects use informal prayers; churches use formalized prayers, often from prayer books.

c. Unlike churches, sects seek to meet the needs of members of the middle- and upper-middle class.

d. Unlike sects, churches depict a supreme being as taking an active interest in the individual's everyday life.

84. In the United States in 1989, which of the following Christian denominations was the largest?


a. the Southern Baptist Convention

b. the Assemblies of God

c. the Roman Catholic Church

d. the United Methodist Church

85. A ______________ is a religious group with practices and teachings outside the dominant cultural and religious traditions of a society.


a. church

b. denomination

c. sect

d. cult

86. All of the following major religions started as cults, except:


a. Judaism.

b. Hinduism.

c. Christianity.

d. Islam.

87. A Korean electrical engineer who believed that God revealed to him that Judgment Day was rapidly approaching began a religious movement that became known as the Unification church, also known as:


a. the Moonies.

b. Branch Davidians.

c. Krishna Consciousness.

d. the Church of Scientology.

88. "New-right" fundamentalists have been especially critical of ___________--a belief in the perfectibility of human beings through a belief in God and a religious conversion.


a. creationism

b. evolutionism

c. secular humanism

d. divine intervention

89. According to the text, the debate over what should be taught in our nation's schools:


a. is limited to religious issues.

b. involves moral issues.

c. has diminished in recent years as new-right fundamentalists have been able to convince others that they are correct.

d. includes the entire curriculum.

90. The text points out that in many nations, the rise of religious ____________ has led to the blending of strongly held religious and political beliefs, and it is especially strong in the Middle East.


a. politics

b. nationalism

c. totalitarianism

d. dogmatism

91. In regard to the electronic church and education in the United States, the text notes that:


a. televised religious services have always had a national audience with widely divergent viewpoints on U.S. schools.

b. many televangelists encourage public schools to teach the humanist religion.

c. some televangelists argue that churches should become actively involved in educational issues, including the election of school board members.

d. there is no relationship between the electronic church and education.

92. According to the text, all of the following statements regarding the impact of the Internet on education and religion are true, except:


a. "Cyberspace battles" over censorship may occur because many books not available in school libraries are available on the Internet.

b. the Internet inevitably will produce greater understanding between people from a wide variety of educational and religious backgrounds.

c. the Internet is just starting to have an impact on religion and education.

d. some religious groups have already begun to press for limits to the types of information available on the Internet.

93. Which of the following is not a basic function of schools?


a. instruction

b. socialization

c. custody and control

d. promotion of class differences

94. Which of these theorists would argue that the educational system maintains existing social inequalities?


a. feminist

b. postmodern

c. interactionist

d. conflict

95. The primary source of funding for local school districts is __________ taxes.


a. property

b. income

c. sales

d. luxury

96. Under a ________ system, parents may be able to send their children to a private school.


a. desegregation plan

b. lottery plan

c. voucher

d. random

97. Which of the following results from tracking?


a. Different students receive fundamentally different educational content.

b. Students on different tracks acquire different attitudes about their potential.

c. Friendship groups among students tend to occur within a given track.

d. all of the above

98. Which of the following is an example of the hidden curriculum of education?


a. learning respect for authority

b. conformity to societal norms and values

c. the learning of appropriate sex-role behavior

d. all of the above

99. The differences between sects and churches is that churches have ___________ organizations and sects have ___________ organizations.


a. formal; formal

b. formal; bureaucratic

c. bureaucratic; informal

d. vertical; horizontal

100. Weber argued that the Protestant Reformation:


a. provided the impetus for capitalism.

b. contributed to false consciousness.

c. promoted the status quo.

d. improved opportunities for women and minorities.