Chapter 7 – Social Process Theories: Learning, Control, and Reaction

What is “eugenics?”  

What factors seem to insulate children from growing up to be criminals?

What patterns are seen in birth order as related to delinquency?  What is meant by one’s “micro-environment” in the context of birth order?

What are the major parenting styles?  Which one is most successful in reducing delinquency?  Why?  Which is worst?  Why?

Why do sociologists tend of speak of “sociopaths” for the same instances where psychologists tend to use the term psychopath?  Can you define “sociopath?”

“Spare the rod and spoil the child” (re spanking) is accurate.  True or false?  Explain briefly.

Does family abuse effect boys and girls differently?  If so, what are the differences and why do they seem to exist?

What effects does sexual abuse have on girl’s later propensity for trouble with the law?

“Broken homes cause delinquency.”  True or false?  Explain.

Can you define and distinguish “manifest functions” vs. “latent functions?”

It’s a myth that school performance is related to delinquency.  True or false?  Explain.

Is there a relationship between gang membership and performance in school?  Explain.  Is it clear which comes first?

What factors seemed associated with delinquency, or lack of it, in China?  How about in Canada?

What theory is Edwin Sutherland most closely associated with?

Sutherland believed differential association only applied to delinquents, not to adults and white collar criminals.  True or false?

What assumptions does Sutherland’s theory include?

What is Sutherland and Cressey’s main mechanism that they believe leads to law-breaking?

How well supported by data does the theory put forward by Sutherland and Cressey seem to be?

What is it that criminals are assumed to be differentially associating with in Sutherland and Cressey’s theory?

How successful has this theory been in predicting actual delinquency?  What major methodological shortcomings does it seem to have?

What was the “Richmond Study?” 

What is the name of the theory most closely associated with criminologist Ron Akers?

What is the relationship of Albert Bandura to social learning theory?

What are the main assumptions of social learning theory?

What are the two kinds of “social control?”

Who’s name, and what theory, is associated with the idea of positive self-image as a possible preventer of delinquency?   How successful at prediction does the theory seem to actually be?

What famous book is associated with criminologist Travis Hirschi.  What is the name of the theory he popularized?  What assumptions does his theory make.  What central question characterizes this theory?

Does one of the dimensions of social control seem to need to precede the others?

Does religion prevent delinquency?  Explain.

“What is neutralization theory?”  Who made it popular?  What is being “neutralized.” 

Why is labeling theory sometimes called “social reaction theory?”

Who wrote “Outsiders?”

Who was George Herbert Mead?  What theory did he popularize?  Is it related to labeling theory?

What is the “I” vs “the me?”

Which is the “non-reflective self?”

What is meant by “social constructionism?”

Can you briefly explain symbolic interaction theory?  How does it relate to the existence of criminals?

Are are “primary” and “secondary deviance?”

Can you explain briefly the idea of “retrospective interpretation?”

What is meant by the term “moral entrepreneur?”

What is meant by “master status?”  Is it related to “role engulfment?”  If so, how?

How useful has labeling theory proved to be in predicting actual crime and delinquency?