Chapter 6 – Theories about Social Structure and Crime
Who was Adolphe Quetelet, and why is he important to criminology?
Where and why did social disorganization theories come into existence?
Who was the “Chicago School” of sociology? What research methods did they prefer to use?
Who developed the “concentric zone” model of cities? What WAS this model? Where did it predict crime would be greatest? Why?
Who were Shaw and McKay? What was the main body of their theory?
What did Herbert Gan’s book The Villagers argue?
Does Dallas fit the Concentric Zone model? Does this have any implications for where crime will be concentrated?
Whom does social disorganization and poverty seem to effect the worst in the city of today?
What is Sampson and Groves critique of social disorganization theory?
Can you define “structural functionalism?” Did Emile Durkheim have any relationship to this theory?
Who is credited with coining the term “anomie?”
Who developed the “typology of goals and means.” Can you briefly explain it?
What four “modes of adaptation” are associated with Robert Merton’s scheme? How is crime related to this scheme? Will all crime represent “innovation?”
Can you define “structural strain?” Does the U. S. have a high or low rate of structural strain? Explain.
Is there any relationship between mass media practices and a society’s level of structural strain? Explain.
What are the main criticisms of Merton’s scheme?
What is “institutional anomie theory?” How is it different from Merton’s theory?
Can you briefly describe Cloward and Ohlin’s “opportunity theory?” What are the types of gangs it describes. Can you briefly characterize each type?
What is locus of control? Can you describe the two types?
What did Albert Cohen’s strain theory specify as the source of “strain?”
What is a reaction formation? Is it related somehow to Cohen’s theory?
What assumptions underlie all strain theories?
What is the central question all strain theories seek to supply an answer to?
Breifly describe “general strain theory.” Who’s name is associated with it. How does it differ from Merton and Shaw and McKay? Does it seem to have useful predictive power?
Whose name is associated with “focal concerns theories?” What are his main “focal concerns? How well, according to lecture, does this theory actually work for predicting delinquency? What methodological problems does it show?