Chapter 4 – Rational Choice Theories.


Rational choice theory has its roots in the classical school of criminology developed by the Italian social



 To deter people from committing more serious offenses, Beccaria believed crime and punishment must be

______; if not, people would be encouraged to commit more serious offences.


 _________ is the view that people's behavior is motivated by the pursuit of pleasure and the avoidance of pain.


Which philosopher's writings have been credited as the basis of the elimination of torture and severe

punishment in the in the nineteenth century?


James Q. Wilson argued that ___________________?


Areas with greater than usual number of access streets from traffic arteries into the neighborhood are




10. There is evidence of rationality in the way criminals choose the time and place of their crimes. Burglars seem to prefer to work at what hours?

When crime prevention can be achieved by reducing the opportunities

people have to commit particular crimes it is known as _____________?


When efforts to prevent one crime unintentionally prevent other crimes, or when crime control efforts in one

local reduce crime in other areas, it is called___________.


 When the criminal justice system punishes an individual to persuade other individuals from committing crimes is

called _____________.


The idea that keeping offenders in confinement will eliminate the risk of their committing further offenses is



The philosophy of justice that asserts that those who violate the rights of others deserve to be punished. The

severity of punishment should be commensurate with the seriousness of the crime. This philosophy is called



What did Hobbes believe?  Rousseau?  Locke?


Who wrote Leviathan?  What was it’s main argument?


Who wrote The Rights of Man?  Why was it important?


Who was Jeremy Bentham?


What did B. F. Skinner believe about free will?


What is “shaping?”  What is “chaining?”


How is operant conditioning different from classical conditioning?


Who wrote Beyond Freedom and Dignity?  What was its main argument?


Who was Robert Martinson?  Why is he important in criminology?


What are the main weaknesses of deterrence theory?

Can you explain routine activities theory?


What is reintegrative shaming?


How does crime prevention in China differ from that seen in the U. S.?